Is there a relationship between chocolate consumption and symptoms of depression? A cross‐sectional survey of 13,626 US adults

  title={Is there a relationship between chocolate consumption and symptoms of depression? A cross‐sectional survey of 13,626 US adults},
  author={Sarah E. Jackson and Lee Smith and Joseph Firth and Igor Grabovac and Pınar Soysal and Ai Koyanagi and Liang Liang Hu and Brendon Stubbs and Jacopo Demurtas and Nicola Veronese and Xiangzhu Zhu and Lin Yang},
  journal={Depression and Anxiety},
  pages={987 - 995}
Objective: To examine associations between chocolate consumption and depressive symptoms in a large, representative sample of US adults. 
7 Citations
Relationship between Depression Symptoms and Different Types of Measures of Obesity (BMI, SAD) in US Women
SAD had a better correlation with clinical depression symptoms than BMI, especially regarding severe depression symptoms, and the effects of obesity on the depression in the NHANES populations.
The effect of cocoa-rich products on depression, anxiety, and mood: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
It is suggested that the consumption of cocoa-rich products may improve affect and mood in the short term, however, given the short duration of trials, the results cannot be generalized to long-term intake of Cocoa-derived food.
The Association between Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Diabetic Depression in U.S. Adults with Diabetes: Findings from the 2009-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
Elevated levels of NLR are independently associated with increased odds of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in people with diabetes.
To Eat or Not to eat: A Review of the Relationship between Chocolate and Migraines
There is insufficient evidence that chocolate is a migraine trigger; thus, doctors should not make implicit recommendations to migraine patients to avoid it, according to a review of the current literature.
The sweet side of dark chocolate for chronic kidney disease patients.
This review focusses on the potential salutogenic contribution of chocolate intake, to mitigate inflammatory and oxidative burden in CKD, its potential, for cardiovascular protection and on the maintenance of diversity in gut microbiota, as well as clinical perspectives, on regular chocolate intake by CKD patients.
Assessment of the Relationship of Depression With Tobacco and Caffeine Use Among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background University students are at a higher risk of using cognitive enhancers and psychoactive substances. Depression is associated with a noticeable decline in academic performance and can


Mood food: chocolate and depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional analysis.
Higher CES-D depression scores were associated with greater chocolate consumption, which extended to both men and women and did not appear to be explained by a general increase in fat, carbohydrate, or energy intake.
Diet quality and depression risk: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.
There is evidence that a higher quality of a diet is associated with a lower risk for the onset of depressive symptoms, but not all available results are consistent with the hypothesis that diet influences depression risk.
Chocolate craving when depressed: a personality marker
Chocolate was craved by half of the respondents, judged as beneficial for depression, anxiety and irritability, and associated specifically with personality facets encompassed by the higher-order construct of neuroticism.
Physical Activity and Incident Depression: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.
OBJECTIVE The authors examined the prospective relationship between physical activity and incident depression and explored potential moderators. METHOD Prospective cohort studies evaluating
Is chocolate consumption associated with health outcomes? An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
There is weak evidence to suggest that chocolate consumption may be associated with favorable health outcomes.
Mood state effects of chocolate.
This review focuses primarily on clarifying the possibility that, for some people, chocolate consumption may act as an antidepressant self-medication strategy and the processes by which this may occur.
Physical activity and likelihood of depression in adults: a review.
Evidence suggests that even low doses of PA may be protective against depression, and further studies examining the optimal domain of PA for reducing the likelihood of depression are needed.
Epidemiology of depression and diabetes: a systematic review.
Current research suggests that the risk of developing depression is increased in people with diabetes; however, further studies are required in order to establish the nature of the relationship between depression, glycaemic control and the development of diabetes complications, and make appropriate recommendations for treatment and to support self-management of diabetes.
Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis
Intervention with dark chocolate/cocoa products significantly reduced serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) levels and no major effects on HDL and TG in short-term intervention trials are observed.
Intake of sweet foods and counts of cariogenic microorganisms in relation to body mass index and psychometric variables in women
This study suggests that women with higher CPRS score have higher energy intakes of sweet foods, indicating a possible link between mood regulation and the intake of sweet food.