Is there a link between oestrogen therapy and gallbladder disease?

  title={Is there a link between oestrogen therapy and gallbladder disease?},
  author={Radha K. Dhiman and Yogesh K. Chawla},
  journal={Expert Opinion on Drug Safety},
  pages={117 - 129}
Cholelithiasis is the most common form of benign gallbladder disease that results in major heath expenditure. Female sex hormones are causally related to cholesterol gallstone disease, which are more common in women than in men. The risk of development of cholelithiasis is further enhanced by the use of exogenous female sex hormones and by pregnancy. Oestrogens are used in oral contraceptives and in hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Oral contraceptives do not pose a greater risk for… 

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This first European study shows that the risk of gallstones appeared greater with an increasing duration of use of HRT, and is unable to provide an answer on the effect of dose of estrogen on occurrence of symptomatic gallstones.

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Use of HRT was positively associated with an increased risk of symptomatic gallstones in this population of women and confirms trial data and additionally shows effects of duration of use and increased risk associated with past use.

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The rate of Gallbladder disease among inpatient cases during the study period was high, partly explained by unfavorable body mass index, lipid levels, higher prevalence of diabetes, and a more frequent use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in subjects.

G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor, GPER1, Offers a Novel Target for the Treatment of Digestive Diseases

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Oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and endogenous oestrogen in gall stone disease--a case-control study.

The age dependence of the relative risk associated with exposure to oral contraceptives and pregnancy suggests that there are subpopulations of women susceptible to early formation of gall stones after exposure to either oral contraceptives or pregnancy.

Oral contraceptives and non-contraceptive oestrogens in the risk of gallstone disease requiring surgery.

On a clinical and public health scale, oral contraceptives and non-contraceptive oestrogens are unlikely to have an important influence in the aetiology of gallbladder disease.

Alterations in Gallbladder Emptying and Bile Retention in the Absence of Changes in Bile Lithogenicity in Postmenopausal Women on Hormone Replacement Therapy

Though impairment of gallbladder emptying occurs in the short term with HRT in postmenopausal women, there is no change in CSI and nucleation time.

Comparison between the use of oral contraceptives and the incidence of surgically confirmed gallstone disease.

A statistical analysis of the change in the incidence of cholecystectomy in women between 1961 and 1971 shows an increased incidence in women in age groups exposed to oral contraceptives, which supports a causal relationship between the use of oral contraceptives and the occurrence of gallstones in the population.

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Effect of synthetic oestrogens and progestagens in oral contraceptives on bile lipid composition.

Results indicate that the progestagen, norgestrel, and not as previously thought the oestrogen, ethinyloestradiol, is responsible for the increase in cholesterol saturation of bile which accompanies the use of oral contraceptives.

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An increase in risk of biliary tract disease among postmenopausal women using estrogen therapy is suggested, and the morbidity and cost associated with these outcomes may need to be considered in decisions regarding the use of estrogen therapy.