The aims of this review paper are (1) to discuss the relevance of proprioception and standing balance in rehabilitation and prevention of sports injuries, (2) to examine the evidence supporting decreased balance as a risk factor and balance training as a prevention strategy for injury in sport, (3) to review the evidence in the literature supporting the reliability and validity of clinical balance measurements, (4) to examine factors potentially influencing lower extremity balance and (5) to discuss the implications for future research in identifying clinical balance measurement tools appropriate for use in rehabilitation and injury prevention in sports medicine. Laboratory measurement techniques for balance (using costly, highly technical, and often non-portable equipment) are often not appropriate for use in a clinical setting or for research in a large field based clinical trial. Many of the clinical tools for balance measurement are not appropriate for use in the healthy active population, as they are not challenging enough or they are static balance measures. Evidence from original research suggests that static unipedal timed balance is a reliable measurement in both children and adults. There is little evidence to support the reliability and validity of dynamic clinical measurements of balance developed. It is impaired dynamic unipedal balance in sport which may be a significant risk factor for re-injury following rehabilitation or injury in sport. Dynamic standing balance measurement tools appropriate for use in the clinical setting need to be developed and assessed for reliability and validity.