Is the bitter rejection response always adaptive?

@article{Glendinning1994IsTB,
  title={Is the bitter rejection response always adaptive?},
  author={John I Glendinning},
  journal={Physiology \& Behavior},
  year={1994},
  volume={56},
  pages={1217-1227}
}
  • J. Glendinning
  • Published 1 December 1994
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Physiology & Behavior
The bitter rejection response consists of a suite of withdrawal reflexes and negative affective responses. It is generally assumed to have evolved as a way to facilitate avoidance of foods that are poisonous because they usually taste bitter to humans. Using previously published studies, the present paper examines the relationship between bitterness and toxicity in mammals, and then assesses the ecological costs and benefits of the bitter rejection response in carnivorous, omnivorous, and… 
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TLDR
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Do sheep use umami and bitter tastes as cues of post-ingestive consequences when selecting their diet
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Umami taste appears to have a positive value that can decrease after aversive conditionings, while bitter taste appearsTo have a negative value that made sheep suspicious about it even when associated with positive consequences, which could be a residual effect of the large difference between initial preferences.
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