Is the answer for Parkinson disease already in the medicine cabinet?

  title={Is the answer for Parkinson disease already in the medicine cabinet?},
  author={James Howard Bower and Beate R Ritz},
  pages={854 - 855}
There have been an increasing number of publications in support of the inflammatory hypothesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Proinflammatory cytokines and microglia occur in human PD brains,1,2 and inflammation may initiate a chain reaction leading to neuronal death.3 Cyclooxygenase inhibitors provide neuroprotection in animal models of PD.4 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) lower the risk of developing another neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer disease.5 A recent meta-analysis of… 
Modulating Microglia Activity with PPAR-γ Agonists: A Promising Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease?
Current evidence in support of the beneficial effect of targeting peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ to achieve neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease is reviewed.
Pesticide-induced Immunotoxicity May Underlie Synergistic Gene-environment Interactions that Increase Parkinson's Disease Risk for High-risk Genotype Individuals at rs3129882 in the HLA-DRA Gene
A clear understanding of how the immune system plays a role in this and other neurodegenerative disorders will be critical for successful development of disease biomarkers, and therapeutic interventions to delay or ameliorate the course of the disease.
Common genetic variant association with altered HLA expression, synergy with pyrethroid exposure, and risk for Parkinson’s disease: an observational and case–control study
Novel findings suggest that the MHC-II locus may increase susceptibility to PD through presentation of pathogenic, immunodominant antigens and/or a shift toward a more pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cell response in response to specific environmental exposures, such as pyrethroid exposure through genetic or epigenetic mechanisms that modulate M HC-II gene expression.
Can Ibuprofen Reduce Parkinson Disease Risk
Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation may play a role in neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson disease (PD) and that reducing


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of Parkinson disease.
Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that use of NSAIDs may delay or prevent the onset of PD.
Use of ibuprofen and risk of Parkinson disease
The association between use of ibuprofen and lower PD risks, not shared by other NSAIDs or acetaminophen, suggests ib uprofen should be further investigated as a potential neuroprotective agent against PD.
Protective effects of NSAIDs on the development of Alzheimer disease
Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use was protective against Alzheimer disease, and findings were clearest for ibuprofen.
Inflammation in Parkinson's disease: an update.
  • Paul F. Smith
  • Biology, Psychology
    Current opinion in investigational drugs
  • 2008
This review summarizes and evaluates the progress that has been made in this area of research since 2006 and suggests that anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful in slowing disease progression once the clinical signs of PD have been observed.
Microglial activation and dopamine terminal loss in early Parkinson's disease
In vivo demonstration of parallel changes in microglial activation and corresponding dopaminergic terminal loss in the affected nigrostriatal pathway in early PD supports that neuroinflammatory responses by intrinsic microglia contribute significantly to the progressive degeneration process of the disease and suggests the importance of early therapeutic intervention with neuroprotective drugs.
Inhibition of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes COX‐1 and COX‐2 provide neuroprotection in the MPTP‐mouse model of Parkinson's disease
In conclusion, the inhibition of either COX‐1/COX‐2 by acetylsalicylic acid or preferentially COX-2 by meloxicam provided a clear neuroprotection against MPTP‐toxicity on the striatal and nigral levels.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of Parkinson’s disease
  • Arch Neurol 2003;60:1059–1064
  • 2003
Anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of Parkinson disease: a meta-analysis
  • Neurology
  • 2010