Is the Pharmacological Mode of Action of Chromium(III) as a Second Messenger?

@article{Vincent2015IsTP,
  title={Is the Pharmacological Mode of Action of Chromium(III) as a Second Messenger?},
  author={John B. Vincent},
  journal={Biological Trace Element Research},
  year={2015},
  volume={166},
  pages={7-12}
}
  • J. Vincent
  • Published 17 January 2015
  • Biology
  • Biological Trace Element Research
Although recent studies have shown that chromium (as the trivalent ion) is not an essential trace element, it has been demonstrated to generate beneficial effects at pharmacologically relevant doses on insulin sensitivity and cholesterol levels of rodent models of insulin insensitivity, including models of type 2 diabetes. The mode of action of Cr(III) at a molecular level is still an area of active debate; however, the movement of Cr(III) in the body, particularly in response to changes in… 
New Evidence against Chromium as an Essential Trace Element.
Nearly 60 y ago, chromium, as the trivalent ion, was proposed to be an essential element, but the results of new studies indicate that chromium currently can only be considered pharmacologically
The absorption and transport of chromium in the body
Metabolic effects of chromium—Potential molecular mechanisms
  • Sreejayan Nair
  • Medicine
    The Nutritional Biochemistry of Chromium (III)
  • 2019
The Double Face of Metals: The Intriguing Case of Chromium
TLDR
The important role ofCr(III) for human health and the dangerousness of Cr(VI) as a toxic element are underline.
Biospeciation of Cr(III) Nutritional Supplements in Biological Fluids
Metal ion speciation in various biological systems has been extensively studied to elucidate its biological role and the toxicity of the element of interest. In the present study, chromium speciation
Chromium(III) Glycinate Complex Supplementation Improves the Blood Glucose Level and Attenuates the Tissular Copper to Zinc Ratio in Rats with Mild Hyperglycaemia
TLDR
It was found that CrGly significantly decreased blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels more efficiently than CrPic, and both Cr compounds normalized disturbed the serum, renal and cardiac molar Cu/Zn ratio, as well as restored the kidney Zn and Cu levels in rats with hyperglycaemia.
Synthesis, biological activity and toxicity of chromium(III) metformin complex as potential insulin-mimetic agent in C57BL/6 mice
TLDR
Results indicated that CrMet had beneficial function on blood glucose (BG) and lipid metabolism for diabetes and it maybe a potential candidate as a therapeutic agent in T2DM.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 51 REFERENCES
Is chromium pharmacologically relevant?
  • J. Vincent
  • Biology
    Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements
  • 2014
The Bioinorganic Chemistry of Chromium
chromium exists in nature as complexes of two stable oxidation states – trivalent chromium(iii) and hexavalent chromium(Vi). Although chromium(Vi) is a well known human toxin and potential
The biochemistry of chromium.
  • J. Vincent
  • Biology, Chemistry
    The Journal of nutrition
  • 2000
TLDR
The oligopeptide chromodulin appears to play a role in an autoamplification mechanism in insulin signaling, and the molecular agent responsible for transporting chromium from mobile pools to insulin-sensitive cells is probably the metal transport protein transferrin.
The binding of trivalent chromium to low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance (LMWCr) and the transfer of chromium from transferrin and chromium picolinate to LMWCr
TLDR
Chromium is readily transferred from transferrin to apoLMWCr at near neutral pH and reduction of the chromic center of Cr(pic)3 may be required for the supplement to release chromium; thus, release of chromium is related to a mechanism by which Cr (pic) 3 may generate hydroxyl radicals in cells.
The trace element chromium--a role in glucose homeostasis.
TLDR
Interestingly, a significant inverse relationship was found between plasma chromium and plasma insulin concentrations both over a 24-h period and after a 75-g glucose load, suggesting the removal of chromium from the plasma compartment after meals is not explained simply by increased urinary loss but might be explained by transient changes in uptake or binding of Chromium by insulin-sensitive tissues.
A comparison of the insulin-sensitive transport of chromium in healthy and model diabetic rats.
Evidence that chromium is an essential factor for biological activity of low-molecular-weight, chromium-binding substance.
A biologically active form of chromium may activate a membrane phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTP).
TLDR
It is proposed that chromium plays a biological role in the activation of a membrane phosphotyrosine phosphatase similar to PTP1A' or PTP 1B.
Chromium: celebrating 50 years as an essential element?
TLDR
This review considers research on the biochemistry of Cr(III) over the last two decades and how the results have affected the current status of Cr as an essential element.
Molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance.
...
...