Is the International Court of Justice Biased

@article{Posner2005IsTI,
  title={Is the International Court of Justice Biased},
  author={Eric A. Posner and Miguel Figueiredo},
  journal={The Journal of Legal Studies},
  year={2005},
  volume={34},
  pages={599-630}
}
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) has jurisdiction over disputes between nations and has decided dozens of cases since it began operations in 1946. Its defenders argue that the ICJ decides cases impartially. Its critics argue that the members of the ICJ vote the interests of the states that appoint them. Prior empirical scholarship is ambiguous. We test the charge of bias using statistical methods. We find strong evidence that (1) judges favor the states that appoint them and that (2… 

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