Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Over? Long‐Term Effects of In Utero Influenza Exposure in the Post‐1940 U.S. Population

  title={Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Over? Long‐Term Effects of In Utero Influenza Exposure in the Post‐1940 U.S. Population},
  author={Douglas V. Almond},
  journal={Journal of Political Economy},
  pages={672 - 712}
  • Douglas V. Almond
  • Published 2006
  • Economics, Medicine
  • Journal of Political Economy
  • This paper uses the 1918 influenza pandemic as a natural experiment for testing the fetal origins hypothesis. [...] Key Result Data from the 1960–80 decennial U.S. Census indicate that cohorts in utero during the pandemic displayed reduced educational attainment, increased rates of physical disability, lower income, lower socioeconomic status, and higher transfer payments compared with other birth cohorts. These results indicate that investments in fetal health can increase human capital.Expand Abstract
    Lingering prenatal effects of the 1918 influenza pandemic on cardiovascular disease.
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    On the Long Term Effects of the 1918 U.S. Influenza Pandemic
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    Testing the Fetal Origins Hypothesis in a developing country: evidence from the 1918 Influenza Pandemic.
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    The Scourge of Asian Flu: In utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children
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    Does in Utero Exposure to Illness Matter? The 1918 Influenza Epidemic in Taiwan as a Natural Experiment
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    Fetal Shock or Selection? The 1918 Influenza Pandemic and Human Capital Development
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    1918 Influenza Pandemic: In Utero Exposure in the United States and Long-Term Impact on Hospitalizations
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    The Long-Term Economic Impact of In Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria
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    Publications referenced by this paper.
    Epidemiological evidence of an early wave of the 1918 influenza pandemic in New York City.
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    • PDF
    The Economic Effects of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic
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    The fetal origins of adult disease
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    Coronary heart disease after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine, 1944-45.
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