Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Over? Long‐Term Effects of In Utero Influenza Exposure in the Post‐1940 U.S. Population

@article{Almond2006IsT1,
  title={Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Over? Long‐Term Effects of In Utero Influenza Exposure in the Post‐1940 U.S. Population},
  author={Douglas Almond},
  journal={Journal of Political Economy},
  year={2006},
  volume={114},
  pages={672 - 712}
}
  • D. Almond
  • Published 1 August 2006
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Political Economy
This paper uses the 1918 influenza pandemic as a natural experiment for testing the fetal origins hypothesis. [...] Key Result Data from the 1960–80 decennial U.S. Census indicate that cohorts in utero during the pandemic displayed reduced educational attainment, increased rates of physical disability, lower income, lower socioeconomic status, and higher transfer payments compared with other birth cohorts. These results indicate that investments in fetal health can increase human capital.Expand
On the Long Term Effects of the 1918 U.S. Influenza Pandemic
Using the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic, Almond (2006) concludes that in utero exposure to maternal health insults has a large, negative impact on socio-economic status that reaches well intoExpand
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It is found that cohorts in utero during the 1918 influenza pandemic are shorter as children/adolescents and less educated compared to other birth cohorts and are more likely to have serious health problems including kidney disease, circulatory and respiratory problems, and diabetes in old age. Expand
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For those exposed in utero to the deadliest wave of the 1918 influenza pandemic, high rates of functional limitations are shown to drive the higher rates of hospitalizations in old age. Expand
Lingering prenatal effects of the 1918 influenza pandemic on cardiovascular disease.
Prenatal exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic (Influenza A, H1N1 subtype) is associated with ⩾20% excess cardiovascular disease at 60 to 82 years of age, relative to cohorts born without exposureExpand
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(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)I.IntroductionThe influenza pandemic of 1918 was the deadliest disease disaster in 20th-century human history; the pandemic infected 500 million people andExpand
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TLDR
The model tests precise predictions from the medical literature about when exposure to in utero insults should damage organs later in life and demonstrates the necessity of using a short duration event as a source of variation in fetal conditions. Expand
Testing the Fetal Origins Hypothesis in a developing country: evidence from the 1918 Influenza Pandemic.
TLDR
Compared to individuals born in the few years surrounding the Influenza Pandemic, those who were in utero during the pandemic are less likely to be college educated, be employed, have formal employment, or know how to read and have fewer years of schooling and a lower hourly wage. Expand
Fetal Shock or Selection? The 1918 Influenza Pandemic and Human Capital Development
Almond (2006) argues that in utero exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic lowered socioeconomic status in adulthood, whereas Brown & Thomas (2018) find that the effect disappears after controllingExpand
The 1918 Influenza Pandemic and the Fetal Origins Hypothesis : Evidence from Linked Data Preliminary Draft June 16 , 2017
Almond (2006) argues that in-utero exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic lowered socioeconomic status in adulthood, whereas Brown and Duncan (2016) find that the effect disappears after controllingExpand
The Scourge of Asian Flu: In utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children
TLDR
Results point to multiple channels linking fetal health shocks to childhood outcomes: physical development is impeded, but only when mothers had certain health characteristics; by contrast, the negative effects on cognitive development appear general across the cohort. Expand
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