Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Over? Long‐Term Effects of In Utero Influenza Exposure in the Post‐1940 U.S. Population

@article{Almond2006IsT1,
  title={Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Over? Long‐Term Effects of In Utero Influenza Exposure in the Post‐1940 U.S. Population},
  author={Douglas Almond},
  journal={Journal of Political Economy},
  year={2006},
  volume={114},
  pages={672 - 712}
}
  • D. Almond
  • Published 1 August 2006
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Political Economy
This paper uses the 1918 influenza pandemic as a natural experiment for testing the fetal origins hypothesis. [] Key Result Data from the 1960–80 decennial U.S. Census indicate that cohorts in utero during the pandemic displayed reduced educational attainment, increased rates of physical disability, lower income, lower socioeconomic status, and higher transfer payments compared with other birth cohorts. These results indicate that investments in fetal health can increase human capital.

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