Is tail wagging in white wagtails, Motacilla alba, an honest signal of vigilance?

@article{Randler2006IsTW,
  title={Is tail wagging in white wagtails, Motacilla alba, an honest signal of vigilance?},
  author={C. Randler},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={2006},
  volume={71},
  pages={1089-1093}
}
The function and adaptive value of tail wagging in many bird species are not yet fully understood. Possible functions are flushing insects, displaying submission and signalling an individual's state of alertness to predators. To distinguish between these, I observed feeding and preening white wagtails in August–September 2004 near Husum, Germany. I counted vigilance events (head-up and left–right scans), tail wags and pecks during feeding. Adults and juveniles did not differ in the frequency of… Expand
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