Is smoking a risk factor for lumbar disc herniation?

@article{Huang2015IsSA,
  title={Is smoking a risk factor for lumbar disc herniation?},
  author={Weimin Huang and Ying Qian and Kai Zheng and Lili Yu and Xiu-chun Yu},
  journal={European Spine Journal},
  year={2015},
  volume={25},
  pages={168-176}
}
PurposeTo evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and lumbar disc herniation (LDH).MethodsCohort or case–control studies were identified by searches of several data bases, including Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and BIOSIS, for entries made up to December 2014. Data extraction was performed by two independent investigators. The data synthesis was performed using the random effects model. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analyses, and assessment for publication bias were also… 
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