Is sexual contact a major mode of hepatitis C virus transmission?

@article{Tohme2010IsSC,
  title={Is sexual contact a major mode of hepatitis C virus transmission?},
  author={Rania A. Tohme and Scott Holmberg},
  journal={Hepatology},
  year={2010},
  volume={52}
}
Medical opinion varies considerably regarding the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) through sexual contact. Based on the study design, representativeness of the study population, and the methods used for case ascertainment, we analyzed 80 qualifying reports regarding the evidence for or against sexual transmission. Regarding heterosexual transmission, the weight of evidence is that there is no increased risk of sexual transmission of HCV among heterosexual couples in regular relationships… 

Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Between HIV Infected Subjects and Their Main Heterosexual Partners

TLDR
Health care providers need to pay special attention to sexual transmission of HCV among HIV-infected individuals and their main heterosexual partners, and should recommend control/preventive measures for HCV sexual transmission.

Sexual transmission of Hepatitis C Virus infection in a heterosexual population: A systematic review

TLDR
A more liberal approach to review inclusion criteria might be useful in further identifying factors associated with an increased risk of sexual transmission of HCV infection in a heterosexual population, however, caution should be applied to avoid the impact of confounders on the findings.

Hepatitis C prevalence in HIV-infected heterosexual men and men who have sex with men.

TLDR
HCV prevalence in HIV-positive MSM is higher than previously appreciated or documented in SA, and targeted interventions are required to address this emerging challenge to achieve the viral hepatitis elimination ideal by 2030.

Risk Factors for HCV Acquisition Among HIV-Positive MSM in Belgium

TLDR
This study confirmed fisting and suffering from other STIs as risk factors for HCV and suggested an increased risk of HCV associated with serosorting and identified anal douching as being associated with HCV infection.

Sexual transmission of viral hepatitis.

  • L. Gorgos
  • Medicine, Biology
    Infectious disease clinics of North America
  • 2013

Prevalence of hepatitis C in a Swiss sample of men who have sex with men: whom to screen for HCV infection?

TLDR
The findings suggest that in Switzerland, hepatitis C among MSM without diagnosed HIV is not more prevalent than in the general population and there currently see no reason for promoting HCV-testing among all MSM in Switzerland.

Incidence of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-positive men who have sex with men

TLDR
The high reinfection rates and the attributable risk analysis suggest the existence of a subset of HIV-positive MSM with recurring sexual exposure to HCV, which is likely to become chronic and liver fibrosis progression is accelerated in this population.

Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among HIV-infected men who have sex with men--New York City, 2005-2010.

TLDR
It is shown that high-risk sexual behavior was the most likely mode of transmission among HIV-infected MSM with recently acquired HCV infection and no reported history of injection-drug use, and five clusters of closely related HCV variants were revealed, suggesting networks of Transmission among these men.

Trouble with Bleeding: Risk Factors for Acute Hepatitis C among HIV-Positive Gay Men from Germany—A Case-Control Study

TLDR
Sexual practices leading to rectal bleeding, and snorting drugs in settings of increased HCV-prevalence are risk factors for acute hepatitis C, and sharing snorting equipment as well as sharing sexual partners might be modes of sexual transmission.

Acute hepatitis C with evidence of heterosexual transmission: a new case.

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TLDR
Current recommendations about sexual practices are different for persons with chronic HCV infection who are in steady monogamous partnerships versus those with multiple partners or who is in short‐term sexual relationships.

Importance of sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus in seropositive pregnant women: A case‐control study

TLDR
Sexual transmission must be considered a possible mode of infection in HCV infected persons without parenteral exposures, as the relative risk of HCV infection increased according to the increased number of sexual partners.

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TLDR
The case reported here is the first characterized by a documented direct percutaneous HCV transmission outside the healthcare setting, and suggests that sexual exposure to HCV should be considered only after an accurate exclusion of other routes of intrafamilial spread of the infection.

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TLDR
HCV infection is associated with specific sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and sexual practices in the male homosexual population and the evidence of high risk behavior should be incorporated into ongoing educational efforts to decrease the incidence of STDs.

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TLDR
Sexual transmission of HCV infection may be facilitated by ulcerative STIs and male-male sexual practices, but it appears to occur infrequently in this population of adults.

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TLDR
It is demonstrated that in subjects who had only a sexual risk factor for parenterally transmitted infections, HIV may enhance the sexual transmission of HCV.

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TLDR
Sexual transmission of HCV among MSM appears to be rare, and infection at the time of entry into the original cohort study was strongly associated with injection drug use.

Hepatitis C virus infection in spouses: sexual transmission or common exposure to the same risk factors?

TLDR
The findings that the same genotype was detected for both partners in relatively few couples, and that a history of parenteral exposure was an independent predictor of HCV positivity, suggest that the risk of sexual transmission is low.

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TLDR
The risk of HCV transmission between monogamous sex partners does not depend on the duration of sexual exposure and spouses of patients with HCV viraemia and chronic liver disease have a low risk for acquiring HCV.
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