Is postpartum depression a homogenous disorder: time of onset, severity, symptoms and hopelessness in relation to the course of depression

  title={Is postpartum depression a homogenous disorder: time of onset, severity, symptoms and hopelessness in relation to the course of depression},
  author={Pirjo Kettunen and Eeva Koistinen and Jukka Hintikka},
  journal={BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth},
BackgroundPostpartum depression (PPD) is a common illness, but due to the underlying processes and the diversity of symptoms, some variability is exhibited. The risk of postpartum depression is great if the mother has previously suffered from depression, but there is some evidence that a certain subgroup of women only experience depression during the postpartum period.MethodsThe study group consisted of 104 mothers with postpartum major depression and a control group of 104 postpartum mothers… 

Similarities and differences between postpartum depression and depression at other stages of female life: a systematic review

The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the symptomatology of postpartum depression (PPD), including tools that have been used to assess PPD, and potential phenomenological differences to major depression during other life phases.

Is Postpartum Depression Different From Depression Occurring Outside of the Perinatal Period? A Review of the Evidence.

The evidence for and against diagnostic distinction for PPD is reviewed with respect to epidemiology, etiology, and treatment and it is suggested that PPD may be distinct, whereas depression occurring in the later postpartum period may be more similar to major depressive disorder occurring outside of the perinatal period.

Psychosocial risk factors and treatment of new onset and recurrent depression during the post-partum period

There is an urgent need to develop the diagnostics of depression in maternity care services and an awareness of psychosocial risk factors might help in this.

Evaluation of Peripartum Depression in Females

The prevalence of peripartum depression is quite high and is negatively associated with first pregnancy, joint family, and working status; and not having desire/pressure for a male child were found to be associated with a lower prevalence.

The Connections of Pregnancy-, Delivery-, and Infant-Related Risk Factors and Negative Life Events on Postpartum Depression and Their Role in First and Recurrent Depression

Factors associated with pregnancy and delivery have an impact on PPD, but in recurrent depression other postnatal and psychosocial factors are also important risk factors.

Stolen motherhood-case study of postpartum depression

Abstract Aim: The objective was to analyze the case of postpartum depression complicated with extended suicide attempt. Method: The analysis of clinical case and medical history. Results: In

Profiles of women with postpartum depressive symptoms: A latent profile analysis using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale factors.

Identifying profiles of women with PPD symptoms according to the EPDS factors allows to understand the distinct paths of development of PPD and can inform the development of tailored interventions.

Postpartum Depression Effects, Risk Factors and Interventions: A Review

This review involved a literature search on postpartum depression effects, risk factors and interventions on Pubmed and PsycInfo and found that antidepressants have been rarely studied in contrast to cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy, and mother-infant psychotherapy and biochemical interventions including oxytocin.



Symptoms associated with the DSM IV diagnosis of depression in pregnancy and post partum

Depression in pregnancy and postpartum depression show significantly different symptom profiles; appetite is not suitable for the diagnosis of depression in the perinatal period and motor retardation/agitation, concentration and fatigue postnatally is the best discriminating symptoms.

Symptom features of postpartum depression: are they distinct?

Differences in symptomatic differences between postpartum and other depressives suggest the need to include agitation/restlessness and impaired concentration/decision‐making among screening questions for post partum depression.

Course and recurrence of postnatal depression. Evidence for the specificity of the diagnostic concept.

  • P. CooperL. Murray
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science
  • 1995
It was found that those for whom the index episode was a recurrence of depression were at raised risk for further episodes of postnatal depression but not for non-postpartum episodes.

Anxiety symptoms and disorders at eight weeks postpartum.

What lies behind postnatal depression: is it only a mood disorder?

The PND group presented a greater number of severe clinical symptoms than the nondepressed group (p < .002), and further research is necessary to reexamine the heterogeneity of PND and reassess its impact on infant development.

Obsessions and compulsions in women with postpartum depression.

Childbearing-aged women commonly experience obsession thoughts or compulsions in the context of major depressive episodes, and women with postpartum onset major depression experience disturbing aggressive obsessional thoughts more frequently than women with non-postpartum major depression.

Anxiety disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period: A systematic review.

Future research is needed to estimate the prevalence of perinatal anxiety disorders more precisely, to identify potential implications of maternal anxiety disorders for maternal quality of life and child development, and to determine safe and effective treatment methods.

Missed bipolarity and psychiatric comorbidity in women with postpartum depression.

The results suggest that postpartum depression is a heterogeneous entity and that misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder in the post partum period may be quite common, and the need for early detection of bipolarity through the use of reliable and valid assessment instruments is important.

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms during the postpartum period. A prospective cohort.

The postpartum period is a high-risk time for the development of OCD symptoms, and when such symptoms develop, they have a high likelihood of persisting for at least 6 months, and much higher rates among women in the post partum period are found.

A Controlled Study of the Onset, Duration and Prevalence of Postnatal Depression

No significant difference in the point prevalence of depression at six months was found between the postnatal and control women, nor in the six-month period prevalence, but a threefold higher rate of onset of depression was found within five weeks of childbirth.