Is low pathogenic avian influenza virus virulent for wild waterbirds?

@article{Kuiken2013IsLP,
  title={Is low pathogenic avian influenza virus virulent for wild waterbirds?},
  author={Thijs Kuiken},
  journal={Proceedings. Biological sciences},
  year={2013},
  volume={280 1763},
  pages={20130990}
}
Although low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) is traditionally considered to have adapted to its wild waterbird host to become avirulent, recent studies have suggested that LPAIV infection might after all have clinical effects. Therefore, I reviewed the literature on LPAIV infections in wild waterbirds. The virulence of LPAIV was assessed in 17 studies on experimental infections and nine studies on natural infections. Reported evidence for virulence were reductions in return rate… CONTINUE READING
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