Is it safe to use smoking cessation therapeutics during pregnancy?

@article{DeLong2014IsIS,
  title={Is it safe to use smoking cessation therapeutics during pregnancy?},
  author={Nicole E De Long and Nicole G. Barra and Daniel B. Hardy and Alison C. Holloway},
  journal={Expert Opinion on Drug Safety},
  year={2014},
  volume={13},
  pages={1721 - 1731}
}
Introduction: Worldwide, 10 to 35% of pregnant women smoke. It is clear that smoking cessation has positive impacts for both the mother and child, yet many women are still unable to quit due to the addictive properties of nicotine. There are limited data surrounding their safety and efficacy in pregnancy. Areas covered: This review highlights evidence from clinical studies and animal experiments regarding the effects of smoking cessation therapeutics on pregnancy, neonatal and long-term… Expand
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The effects of electronic cigarette vapor on placental trophoblast cell function.
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TLDR
A minimum intervention consisting of a motivational interview and psychological treatment have been shown to be effective in helping pregnant smokers to quit, and one of the health interventions that should be accorded the highest priority by health care professionals. Expand
Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy.
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TLDR
The safety of pharmacotherapy is the key question that needs to be resolved before the authors progress in enhancing smoking cessation during pregnancy, and the risks associated with medications that might result in a woman quitting are focused on. Expand
Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy.
TLDR
The primary efficacy outcome was smoking cessation in later pregnancy (in all but one trial, at or around delivery); safety was assessed by seven birth outcomes that indicated neonatal well being and there were no trials of varenicline or bupropion. Expand
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TLDR
Bupropion appears to be effective for smoking cessation therapy during pregnancy in pregnant smokers, in a prospective matched, controlled observational study. Expand
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TLDR
All forms of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) — gum, patches and inhaler — and bupropion are safe and effective for increasing smoking cessation rates in the short and long terms. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
There is currently insufficient evidence to determine whether or not nicotine replacement therapy is effective or safe when used in pregnancy for smoking cessation; further research and, in particular, placebo-randomized controlled trials are required. Expand
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TLDR
Use of a combination of nicotine patch and a faster acting form may confer a benefit in terms of promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy, and lends support to continuing this treatment option pending confirmation by an RCT. Expand
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Cotinine levels generated using NRT during pregnancy were lower than levels achieved from smoking, consistent with the hypothesis that NRT patches deliver an inadequate dose of nicotine to aid smoking cessation during pregnancy. Expand
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TLDR
Low interest in participation and the high withdrawal rate in offering free nicotine patches with counselling to mid-trimester pregnant women at the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide suggest that nicotine patches may not be highly useful for pregnant women. Expand
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