Is it safe to use smoking cessation therapeutics during pregnancy?

@article{DeLong2014IsIS,
  title={Is it safe to use smoking cessation therapeutics during pregnancy?},
  author={Nicole E De Long and Nicole G Barra and Daniel Barry Hardy and Alison C. Holloway},
  journal={Expert Opinion on Drug Safety},
  year={2014},
  volume={13},
  pages={1721 - 1731}
}
Introduction: Worldwide, 10 to 35% of pregnant women smoke. It is clear that smoking cessation has positive impacts for both the mother and child, yet many women are still unable to quit due to the addictive properties of nicotine. There are limited data surrounding their safety and efficacy in pregnancy. Areas covered: This review highlights evidence from clinical studies and animal experiments regarding the effects of smoking cessation therapeutics on pregnancy, neonatal and long-term… 

Success of smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy.

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Nicotine replacement therapy during pregnancy

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TLDR
The safety of pharmacotherapy is the key question that needs to be resolved before the authors progress in enhancing smoking cessation during pregnancy, and the risks associated with medications that might result in a woman quitting are focused on.

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TLDR
The primary efficacy outcome was smoking cessation in later pregnancy (in all but one trial, at or around delivery); safety was assessed by seven birth outcomes that indicated neonatal well being and there were no trials of varenicline or bupropion.

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TLDR
Bupropion appears to be effective for smoking cessation therapy during pregnancy in pregnant smokers, in a prospective matched, controlled observational study.

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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
There is currently insufficient evidence to determine whether or not nicotine replacement therapy is effective or safe when used in pregnancy for smoking cessation; further research and, in particular, placebo-randomized controlled trials are required.

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TLDR
Adding a nicotine patch to behavioral cessation support for women who smoked during pregnancy did not significantly increase the rate of abstinence from smoking until delivery or the risk of adverse pregnancy or birth outcomes, however, low compliance rates substantially limited the assessment of safety.

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TLDR
Cotinine levels generated using NRT during pregnancy were lower than levels achieved from smoking, consistent with the hypothesis that NRT patches deliver an inadequate dose of nicotine to aid smoking cessation during pregnancy.
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