BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical use, and to analyze the potential clinical benefit of intraoperative pedography (IP) in a sufficient number of cases in comparison with cases treated without IP. METHODS Patients (age 18 years and older) which sustained an arthrodesis and/or correction of the foot and ankle were included. RESULTS One hundred cases were included (ankle correction arthrodesis, n=12; subtalar joint correction arthrodesis, n=14; arthrodesis without correction midfoot, n=15; correction arthrodesis midfoot, n=26; correction forefoot, n=33). Fifty-two patients were randomized for the use of IP. In 24 of the 52 patients (46%), the correction was modified after IP during the same operation. CONCLUSIONS In 46% of the cases a modification of the surgical correction was made after IP in the same surgical procedure. Whether IP improve the plantar force distribution of the foot and the mid- or long-term clinical outcome has to be critically analyzed when longer follow-up is completed.