Is human sentence parsing serial or parallel? Evidence from event-related brain potentials.

@article{Hopf2003IsHS,
  title={Is human sentence parsing serial or parallel? Evidence from event-related brain potentials.},
  author={Jens-Max Hopf and Markus Bader and Michael Meng and Josef Bayer},
  journal={Brain research. Cognitive brain research},
  year={2003},
  volume={15 2},
  pages={
          165-77
        }
}
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The distinct timing and distribution of these effects provide biological support for theories that distinguish between these types of grammatical rules and constraints and more generally for the proposal that semantic and grammatical processes are distinct subsystems within the language faculty.
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The results of this study support a parser design according to which the so-called structural case (nominative or accusative) is assigned without any delay in the absence of morpho-lexical counterevidence, and argue that the enhancement of a negative ERP component with a ficlassicalfl N400 topography refiects the difficulty of reanalysis due to reaccessing morpho,lexical information that lies outside the domain of the parsing module.
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An all-visual, on-line, lexical priming technique was used to investigate whether the human sentence processor computes syntactic representations serially or in parallel. Structurally ambiguous
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Findings indicate that such biases exist and can influence the parser under certain conditions and that P600 amplitude is a function of the perceived syntactic well-formedness of the sentence.
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TLDR
Event-related potentials were used to study how parsing of German relative clauses is influenced by semantic information, and fast comprehenders showed larger N400 amplitudes for neutral than for semantically biased past participles in general and larger N 400s for the latter when there was a bias for an object relative reading as opposed to a subject relative reading.
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