Helodermin-like and salmon calcitonin (sCT)-like immunoreactivities co-existed in a subset of human calcitonin (hCT)-containing cells in normal human thyroid tissue and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Helodermin/sCT-immunoreactive cells were mostly different from calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive cells. Helodermin and sCT immunoreactivities were not identified in pulmonary and pancreatic hCT-positive neuroendocrine tumors, except for a few lung tumor cells showing positive staining with one of two sCT antisera used. Helodermin immunoreactivity demonstrated by rabbit antiserum R0086 was completely abolished in the presence of synthetic sCT, while sCT immunoreactivity was not absorbed by synthetic helodermin. The carboxyl terminal Arg30-Thr31 sequence (and Pro35 amide structure) of helodermin would be the epitopic site recognized by this antiserum, since a similar amino acid sequence is present in sCT molecules but absent from hCT and CGRP.