Is electromagnetic gauge invariance spontaneously violated in superconductors

  title={Is electromagnetic gauge invariance spontaneously violated in superconductors},
  author={Martin Greiter},
  journal={Annals of Physics},
  • M. Greiter
  • Published 16 March 2005
  • Physics
  • Annals of Physics
Abstract We aim to give a pedagogical introduction to those elementary aspects of superconductivity which are not treated in the classic textbooks. In particular, we emphasize that global U (1) phase rotation symmetry, and not gauge symmetry, is spontaneously violated, and show that the BCS wave function is, contrary to claims in the literature, fully gauge invariant. We discuss the nature of the order parameter, the physical origin of the many degenerate states, and the relation between… Expand

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