Is ecstasy MDMA? A review of the proportion of ecstasy tablets containing MDMA, their dosage levels, and the changing perceptions of purity

@article{Parrott2003IsEM,
  title={Is ecstasy MDMA? A review of the proportion of ecstasy tablets containing MDMA, their dosage levels, and the changing perceptions of purity},
  author={Andrew C. Parrott},
  journal={Psychopharmacology},
  year={2003},
  volume={173},
  pages={234-241}
}
  • A. Parrott
  • Published 9 March 2004
  • Biology
  • Psychopharmacology
AimsNot every tablet sold as “ecstasy” contains MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). The historical origins and evolution of this mismatch will be reviewed, in order to estimate the proportions of ecstasy tablets containing MDMA at different periods over the past 30 years.MethodsSurveys into the pharmacological constituents of ecstasy tablets, dosage levels, and empirical reports of their perceived purity, provide the main data for this review.ResultsDuring the 1980s and early 1990s there… 
LC-MS/MS Analysis of MDMA in Ecstasy Tablets in Morocco
Ecstasy is a street name originally designated for 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) (Figure 1) [1]. It is commonly used at rave parties for its psychedelic and stimulant effects that may
Linking the pharmacological content of ecstasy tablets to the subjective experiences of drug users
TLDR
Linking the pharmacological content of ecstasy sold on the street to subjective experiences contributes to a better understanding of the wide range of subjective effects ascribed to ecstasy and provides a strong rationale for the prolonged endurance of MDMA as the key ingredient of the ecstasy market.
Cannabis and Ecstasy/MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine): an analysis of their neuropsychobiological interactions in recreational users
TLDR
The combined use of cannabis and MDMA may have rather different neuropsychobiological implications, than their separate usage, and future research will need better empirical data on the exact patterns of co-drug usage.
What is the difference between Ecstasy and MDMA
In society there is a discrepancy that has developed in what the public understands about what Ecstasy is, in relation to the term ‘MDMA’. MDMA, the abbreviation for 3,
From ecstasy to MDMA: Recreational drug use, symbolic boundaries, and drug trends.
Content of ecstasy in the Netherlands: 1993-2008.
TLDR
The DIMS system appears to be a market monitor that gives an accurate reflection of what is actually available on the hidden Dutch ecstasy market, and its changes throughout the years.
Chronic tolerance to recreational MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) or Ecstasy
  • A. Parrott
  • Psychology
    Journal of psychopharmacology
  • 2005
TLDR
There is extensive evidence for chronic pharmacodynamic tolerance to recreational Ecstasy/MDMA, but the underlying mechanisms are currently unclear.
ANALYSIS OF FORENSIC SAMPLES OF "ECSTASY" TABLETS SEIZED IN NOVI SAD DURING THE 2004 YEAR
The paper presents results of the analysis of illicit synthetic drugs in the form of tablets distributed under the name "Ecstasy", seized by the police in the broader area of Novi Sad 2004. A huge
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 68 REFERENCES
Human psychopharmacology of Ecstasy (MDMA): a review of 15 years of empirical research
  • A. Parrott
  • Psychology, Biology
    Human psychopharmacology
  • 2001
TLDR
Abstinent regular Ecstasy users often display reduced levels of 5‐HT, 5‐HIAA, tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin transporter density; functional deficits in learning/memory, higher cognitive processing, sleep, appetite and psychiatric well‐being, and, most paradoxically, ‘loss of sexual interest/pleasure’.
Recreational MDMA use in Sydney: a profile of 'Ecstacy' users and their experiences with the drug.
TLDR
The research revealed that Ecstasy is primarily used by infrequent recreational drug users for 'fun' at dance parties and social gatherings and tolerance was reported to develop to the positive effects of Ecstasy, while negative effects increased with use.
Human Deaths and Toxic Reactions Attributed to MDMA and MDEA
TLDR
MDMA and MDEA are synthetic amphetamine analogues that have received considerable media attention as recreational drugs popular among college students and young professionals and well-documented deaths related to the use of these two drugs are exceptionally rare.
Ecstasy (MDMA): a review of its possible persistent psychological effects
TLDR
There is growing evidence that chronic, heavy, recreational use of ecstasy is associated with sleep disorders, depressed mood, persistent elevation of anxiety, impulsiveness and hostility, and selective impairment of episodic memory, working memory and attention.
Potential Human Neurotoxicity of MDMA (‘Ecstasy’): Subjective Self-Reports, Evidence from an Italian Drug Addiction Centre and Clinical Case Studies
TLDR
An updated overview of the magnitude of the phenomenon of ecstasy abuse in Italy and other European countries is given and a tentative description of certain personological dimensions of ecstasy consumers is given.
Recreational Ecstasy/MDMA, the serotonin syndrome, and serotonergic neurotoxicity
  • A. Parrott
  • Psychology, Biology
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
  • 2002
Review of the pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “Ecstasy”)
TLDR
It is suggested that the recent increase in the number of reports of MDMA toxicity probably results from the widespread use of the drug at all night dance parties or “raves”, and suggestions for the rational treatment of the acute toxicity are made on the basis of both pharmacological studies in animals and current clinical practice.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy"): pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans.
TLDR
Improved recognition of MDMA-related syndromes is hoped to provide insight into the function of serotonin in the human brain, in health as well as disease.
'Ecstasy': a human neurotoxin?
  • S. Peroutka
  • Psychology
    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1989
TLDR
Significant controversy exists concerning the legal status of MDMA, its potential clinical efficacy, and, most importantly, the possibility that it may cause irreversible neurotoxicity in human users.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...