Pharmacokinetic differences in exposure to camphor after intraruminal dosing in selectively bred lines of goats.
alpha-Pinene is the dominant monoterpene in Juniperus monosperma. Wood rat species in the genus Neotoma that consume J. monosperma vary in their inclusion of it in their wild diet and in their tolerance of whole J. monosperma or alpha-pinene in laboratory feeding trials. A proposed mechanism for variable tolerance is a difference in absorption of alpha-pinene from the small intestine that is mediated by the intestinal transporter permeability glycoprotein (Pgp). To determine if alpha-pinene is a Pgp substrate, we tested whether it can competitively inhibit Pgp and thereby increase the accumulation of a known Pgp substrate (digoxin) in (1) everted sleeves of small intestine from Neotoma stephensi, a juniper specialist, N. albigula, a sympatric generalist that consumes juniper, N. cinerea, a more distantly related generalist, and Sprague-Dawley rats, and (2) in Caco-2 cells that over express Pgp. We also measured Pgp ATPase phosphate production in transfected insect membrane vesicles exposed to alpha-pinene. We found no significant increase in digoxin accumulation with competitive inhibition experiments, and no increase in phosphate production with transfected membranes, at any concentration of alpha-pinene up to 100 μM. To test whether other compounds in juniper affect Pgp activity, we acclimated five N. stephensi to a juniper diet for 5 d, but found no significant effect compared to animals on control diet. Our data suggest that alpha-pinene is not a Pgp substrate.