Is a foetus developing in a sterile environment?

  title={Is a foetus developing in a sterile environment?},
  author={Trudy M. Wassenaar and Pinaki Panigrahi},
  journal={Letters in applied microbiology},
  volume={59 6},
Novel findings in microbiology question the long-standing paradigm that a healthy pregnancy implies a sterile uterus. It now seems that the placenta is frequently colonized with bacteria, and a placental microbiome has been identified. Recent literature findings are summarized here, and an attempt is made to separate pathological bacterial presence from a naturally occurring microbiome. 
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