Is Negative Advertising Effective for Female Candidates?

@article{Gordon2003IsNA,
  title={Is Negative Advertising Effective for Female Candidates?},
  author={A. Gordon and David M. Shafie and Ann N. Crigler},
  journal={The International Journal of Press/Politics},
  year={2003},
  volume={8},
  pages={35 - 53}
}
Female candidates sometimes are discouraged from negative campaigning because they would risk voter backlash by defying gender stereotypes. In this experiment, a negative television campaign advertisement was manipulated to control for the candidate's gender, issue content, and the character traits emphasized in the narration. The female candidate's support was not diminished because of the attack upon her opponent. The findings show that in low-information contests, female candidates are… Expand
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