Is Morphology Really at Odds with Molecules in Estimating Fern Phylogeny?

  title={Is Morphology Really at Odds with Molecules in Estimating Fern Phylogeny?},
  author={Harald Schneider and Alan R. Smith and Kathleen M Pryer},
Abstract Using a morphological dataset of 136 vegetative and reproductive characters, we infer the tracheophyte phylogeny with an emphasis on early divergences of ferns (monilophytes). The dataset comprises morphological, anatomical, biochemical, and some DNA structural characters for a taxon sample of 35 species, including representatives of all major lineages of vascular plants, especially ferns. Phylogenetic relationships among vascular plants are reconstructed using maximum parsimony and… 
Large-scale phylogenomic analysis resolves a backbone phylogeny in ferns
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First insights into fern matK phylogeny.
Author ' s personal copy First insights into fern matK phylogeny
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The evolution, morphology, and development of fern leaves
A review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely because of recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns.
Utility of a large, multigene plastid data set in inferring higher-order relationships in ferns and relatives (monilophytes).
The utility of this plastid-based data set in corroborating relationships found in previous studies, improving support, and resolving uncertainties in monilophyte phylogeny is supported.
Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns.
This study provides some of the first hypotheses of character evolution at the family level and above in light of recent phylogenetic results, and promotes further study in an area that remains open for original observation.
Exploring the phylogeny of the marattialean ferns
A parsimony‐based total‐evidence dating approach was applied, which suggested a Triassic age for the extant crown group of marattialean ferns and resolved the fossil genera Marattiopsis, Danaeopsis and Qasimia as members of the monophyletic family Marattiaceae.


Phylogenetic relationships of extant ferns based on evidence from morphology and rbcL sequences
The first cladistic analysis of extant ferns based on morphological characters is presented, showing the value of using both molecular and morphological data sets in combination as well as separately, and bootstrap support for the leptosporangiate fern clades is much greater using the combined data set than when either the morphological or the molecular data set is analyzed separately.
How Does the Inclusion of Fossil Data Change Our Conclusions about the Phylogenetic History of Euphyllophytes?
Tests reveal that relationships among major groups of vascular plants are far less completely understood than claimed by some and that ferns s.l. are probably a polyphyletic assemblage and suggest that the impressive successes of gene sequence data in resolving relationships within smaller clades may not be easily duplicated when addressing deep internal nodes of the polysporangiophyte tree.
The phylogeny of land plants: A cladistic analysis based on male gametogenesis
Longer treelengths are required to produce tree topologies in which either lycophytes are monophyletic or to reconstruct the paraphyletic bryophyte phylogeny of recent authors, and provides new insight into land plant evolution.
Multigene phylogeny of land plants with special reference to bryophytes and the earliest land plants.
A widely held view of land plant relationships places liverworts as the first branch of the land plant tree, whereas some molecular analyses and a cladistic study of morphological characters indicate
Fossils and ferns in the resolution of land plant phylogeny
  • G. Rothwell
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    The Botanical Review
  • 2008
These analyses are a first attempt, which includes extinct plants, to develop cladistic hypotheses for the overall topology of fern phylogeny and to lay the groundwork for more detailed analyses of relationships among the homosporous leptosporangiates.
Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to seed plants
It is shown that there are three monophyletic groups of extant vascular plants: (1) lycophytes, (2) seed plants and (3) a clade including equisetophytes (horsetails, psilotophytes) and all eusporangiate and leptosporangiates ferns.
Phylogeny and evolution of ferns (monilophytes) with a focus on the early leptosporangiate divergences.
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Vegetative and reproductive innovations of early land plants: implications for a unified phylogeny.
Development and structural innovations suggest the three bryophyte groups diverged prior to elaboration of this generation, and phylogenetic analysis of three different data sets is the most comprehensive to date and points to a single phylogenetic solution for the evolution of basal embryophytes.
Relationships among seed plants inferred from highly conserved genes: sorting conflicting phylogenetic signals among ancient lineages.
This study conducted phylogenetic analyses of sequences of two highly conserved chloroplast genes, psaA and psbB, for a comprehensive taxonomic sample of seed plants and land plants to provide increased support for relationships within major seed plant clades.
Phylogeny of seed plants based on all three genomic compartments: extant gymnosperms are monophyletic and Gnetales' closest relatives are conifers.
The molecular phylogeny strongly conflicts with current interpretations of seed plant morphology, and implies that many similarities between gnetophytes and angiosperms were independently derived, whereas other characters could emerge as synapomorphies for an expanded conifer group including Gnetales.