Is Methoxyflurane a Suitable Battlefield Analgesic?

  title={Is Methoxyflurane a Suitable Battlefield Analgesic?},
  author={Jacqueline V Mclennan},
  journal={Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps},
  pages={111 - 113}
  • J. Mclennan
  • Published 1 June 2007
  • Chemistry
  • Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Anecdotal reports of mechanical failure of morphine autojets have triggered a review of possible alternatives. Methoxyflurane is one such alternative already widely used by the Australian and New Zealand Defence Forces. The potential benefits and likely significant drawbacks of methoxyflurane are reviewed with the aim of stimulating discussion. 
Efficacy and safety of methoxyflurane: managing trauma associated pain in UK SAR helicopter paramedic practice
Penthrox appears to be a safe and efficacious analgesic when administered in analgesic dosages and the addition of an activated charcoal filter to the Penthrox inhaler renders the risk of occupational side effects negligible.
Methoxyflurane: A Review in Trauma Pain
Inhaled methoxyflurane may offer advantages over other analgesics administered via the intravenous, intramuscular or intranasal routes in terms of its non-invasive self-administration, ease of use and/or rapid onset of action.
Inhaled methoxyflurane (Penthrox) for analgesia in trauma: a systematic review protocol
This systematic review and meta-analysis will summarise the best available evidence and definitively establish if inhaled methoxyflurane is a superior analgesia to standard care in the acute trauma setting and may require amendments to European pain relief guidelines.
Penthrox: a breath of PHEC air for the military?
In inhaled methoxyflurane (Penthrox) would provide strong, fast-acting, self-administered and safe analgesia to patients with moderate to severe injuries and provide an option for strong analgesia which would not be subject to the regulations that govern controlled or accountable drugs.
The role of inhaled methoxyflurane in acute pain management
Given the limitations of currently available analgesic agents in the prehospital and emergency department settings, the ease of use and portability of methoxyflurane combined with its rapid onset of effective pain relief and favorable safety profile make it a useful nonopioid option for pain management.
Inhaled methoxyflurane and intranasal fentanyl for prehospital management of visceral pain in an Australian ambulance service
While MTX provided a more rapid onset of pain relief, INF provided superior analgesia after subsequent doses and in female, cardiac and older patients, and MTX and INF are effective agents for providing visceral pain analgesia in the prehospital setting.
Letters for J R Army Med Corps 2008; vol 154
  • Medicine
  • 2008
It is believed that exposing Defence Medical Services personnel in support of military operations, to methoxyflurane, represents unnecessary risk and it is strongly believed that it should remain in the rest home for retired inhalational anaesthetic agents.
Efficacy of the methoxyflurane as bridging analgesia during epidural placement in laboring parturient
Penthrox™ provides rapid, robust, and satisfactory therapy to control pain and restlessness during epidural placement in laboring parturient.
S10. Methoxyflurane: Like a Phoenix Rising From the Ashes.
  • L. Dangler
  • Medicine
    Journal of anesthesia history
  • 2015


Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings: experience with the analgizer.
Methoxyflurane has been used to provide analgesia for burns dressings on sixty occasions in eleven patients by way of a new, disposable vaporizer, the Analgizer, which is described.
Analgesia for burns dressing using methoxyflurane.
Methoxyflurane in air was used as the sole inhalational analgesic in the dressing of 60 burns performed on 10 patients by a temperature-compensated drawover Pentec vaporizer capable of delivering concentrations of methoxyFlurane up to 1 per cent in increments of 0.1 per cent.
Inhaled methoxyflurane as a prehospital analgesic in children
Objective:  Despite widespread use of methoxyflurane as an inhaled analgesic by ambulance services in Australia there are no published data as to its use pattern, efficacy and safety in the
The effect of methoxyflurane analgesia on renal function in burned patients: an investigation
An investigation into evidence of renal dysfunction following methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings finds small increases in serum uric acid were observed in all of them, but no definite conclusions can be adduced.
Comparison Between Nitrous Oxide and Methoxyflurane for Obstetrical Analgesia
A mixture of 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen was compared with methoxyflurane (Penthrane) in analgesic concentrations during labour in patients using both drugs in succession, with an interval of one labour pain between the two drugs.
Methoxyflurane hepatitis: Two cases following obstetric analgesia
  • J. Delia, W. Maxson, J. Breen
  • Medicine, Biology
    International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • 1983
Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings and other painful ward procedures in children.
  • S. Firn
  • Medicine
    British journal of anaesthesia
  • 1972
SUMMARY Methoxyflurane, administered from a Cardiff Penthrane inhaler was used as an analgesic agent for burns dressings and other painful ward procedures in a series of 36 children, aged 4 months to
Self‐Administered Methoxyflurane for Postoperative Pain: Effectiveness and Patient Acceptance
This study presents a further comparison between self-administered methoxyflurane and morphine for postoperative pain relief and suggests that awake analgesia with methoxyFLurane might be of benefit for the patient with chronic pulmonary disease in whom narcotics would be relatively contraindicated.
Analgesia in instrumental vaginal delivery by the intermittent self-administration of meethoxyflurane using a disposable vaporizer.
The self-administration of methoxyflurane using a disposable plastic inhaler has been examined as a method for providing analgesia for instrumental vaginal deliveries, which included difficult forceps deliveries, breeches and complicated twins.
Effect of Methoxyflurane Analgesia by “Analgizer” on Pain Threshold, Blood Levels, Electroencephalogram, and Blood Gas
Methoxyflurane administered during labor by means of the Analgizer has been found to give considerable pain relief in parturient women.