Is Isolation Room Time-Out a Punisher?

  title={Is Isolation Room Time-Out a Punisher?},
  author={Donald E. Smith},
  journal={Behavioral Disorders},
  pages={247 - 256}
The commonly held assumption that time-out intervention, as represented by use of an isolation room, constitutes a punisher is disputed on empirical and theoretical ground. Consistent, unemotional use of T-O, without ancillary punishers, is shown to result in typical extinction curves (rather than the steeper gradient of punishment curves) for both autistic and mentally impaired children with widely different abrasive behaviors. Such curves ordinarily result from withdrawal of either a positive… Expand

Figures from this paper

Punishment and its putative fallout: A reappraisal.
The need for additional research on punishment in general and especially on its putative shortcomings and side effects is described and the need for more effective formal theories of punishment that provide a principled account of how, why, and when lasting effects of punishment and its potential side effects might be expected to occur or not is suggested. Expand
An Empirical Investigation of Time-Out With and Without Escape Extinction to Treat Escape-Maintained Noncompliance
Although results indicate TO without escape extinction is effective in increasing compliance above baseline levels, more optimal levels of compliance were obtained for all 4 children when escape extinction was added to the TO procedures already in place. Expand
Operant Extinction in the Treatment of Severe Maladaptive Behavior
Both theoretical and practical aspects of extinction are discussed, including components of the extinction process and the importance of functional assessment to its effective use. Expand
Using Time-Out Effectively in the Classroom
Teachers of students with disabilities frequently use time-out as a behavior management strategy. When implemented properiy, time-out procedures can be effective in reducing maladaptive behaviorsExpand
The physical restraint of children: is it therapeutic?
  • H. Bath
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The American journal of orthopsychiatry
  • 1994
A number of theoretical warrants for the use of physical restraint with children are reviewed, with a primary focus on its attachment-promoting possibilities. Expand
State Policies Concerning the Use of Seclusion Timeout in Schools
The use of seclusion timeout in school settings has again become controversial. For more than 35 years there have been recommendations that states and schools develop policies and proceduresExpand
Definitional, Parametric, and Procedural Considerations in Timeout Interventions and Research
  • K. Harris
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Exceptional children
  • 1985
This article reviews definitional, parametric, and procedural issues which must be considered to optimize the effectiveness of timeout, an intervention frequently used with exceptional students. TheExpand
The Use of Restitution and Time-Out for Destructive Behavior in Emotionally Disturbed Children
The use of restitution and time-out for destructive behavior in emotionally disturbed children was investigated. Both techniques were found successful with restitution producing superior results.Expand
The Use of a Timeout Intervention With and Without Escape Extinction for Treatment of Escape-Maintained Noncompliance in a Classroom Setting
of a Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of The University of Southern Mississippi in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Timeout from concurrent schedules.
  • R. Dunn
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior
  • 1990
The results of the third experiment suggest that an intertrial interval following reinforcement is not a critical feature of the overall rate of reinforcement and that preference has been shown to vary directly with the parameters of shock delivery in related procedures. Expand


Acceptability of time out from reinforcement procedures for disruptive child behavior
Acceptability of time out and reinforcement procedures as applied to deviant child behavior was evaluated in two experiments. Clinical cases were described to undergraduate students along with fourExpand
Timeout as a punishing stimulus in continuous and intermittent schedules.
The results suggest that some schedules of intermittent punishment may be as effective as continuous punishment, at least in the case of the continued suppression of a response that has already been reduced to a low frequency. Expand
Delayed timeout as a procedure for reducing disruptive classroom behavior: a case study.
The disruptive behavior of a 9-yr-old boy was eliminated by the illumination of a light on the subject's desk, which represented the loss of free time later in the day, which returned to its previous level when the light was removed. Expand
Sensory isolation therapy of autistic children: a preliminary report.
Three children who manifested extreme with drawal from human contact (autistic defenses) were placed in a rigidly sensory deprived hospital environment. A brief literature review, an exposition ofExpand
An assessment of methods for training parents in the use of time-out
Abstract The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative effectiveness of three methods for teaching parents to use time-out. Twenty-four parents were randomly assigned to one of threeExpand
Controlling Severe Maladaptive Behaviors
Applied behavior analysis procedures for controlling severe forms of maladaptive behavior are reviewed. Considerations for use of these procedures in classroom environments are discussed. InExpand
A new treatment for alcohol dependency
  • 1979
Controlling severe rnaladaptive behaviors
  • Behavioral Disorders
  • 1979
Environmental stimulation in the treatment of phencyclidine (PCP) psychosis and LSD psychosis
  • 1979
Minutes of a Research and Development Unit
  • 1979