Is Ginkgo biloba a cognitive enhancer in healthy individuals? A meta‐analysis

  title={Is Ginkgo biloba a cognitive enhancer in healthy individuals? A meta‐analysis},
  author={Keith R. Laws and H. W. Sweetnam and Tejinder K. Kondel},
  journal={Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental},
We conducted a meta‐analysis to examine whether Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba) enhances cognitive function in healthy individuals. 
Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® on cognitive control functions, mental activity of the prefrontal cortex and stress reactivity in elderly adults with subjective memory impairment – a randomized double‐blind placebo‐controlled trial
Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761® increases prefrontal dopamine in animals, and its effects on cognitive functions related to prefrontal dopamine and stress reactivity are assessed.
The Effects of Standardized Ginkgo Biloba Extracts (GBE) on Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) in Middle-Aged Adults: A Review
There might be beneficial effects of GBE to prevent, improve or delay SCD in the generation of 50 years or older, however, larger, well-defined RCTs using SCD criteria are necessary to further substantiate this effect in SCD subjects.
Diosgenin-Rich Yam Extract Enhances Cognitive Function: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Study of Healthy Adults
The diosgenin-rich yam extract treatment appeared to safely enhance cognitive function in healthy adults and significantly improved the semantic fluency in 12 standard cognitive subtests.
Table 1 Overview of the Effect of Nutritional Supplements on Cognitive and Exercise Performance
There remains a need for controlled randomized studies with a strong design, sufficient statistical power, and well-defined outcome measures before “claims” on its beneficial effects on brain functioning can be established.
Novel Psychoactive Substances and Behavioral Addictions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.
Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes, and there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance.
Motivations for Botanical Use by Socioeconomically Diverse, Urban Adults: Does Evidence Support Motivation?
It was found that BDS users had better diet quality than DS users as well as nonusers of DS, and the top three motivations for BDS users were to improve overall health, to maintain health, and to supplement the diet.
Plant-derived nootropics and human cognition: A systematic review.
Ginkgo biloba was the most relevant nootropic regarding perceptual and motor functions and Bacopa monnieri improves language, learning and memory.
Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract Administration on the Thyroid Gland of the Adult Male Albino Rat: A Histological, Histochemical and Morphometric Study
  • R. Bushra
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Egyptian Journal of Anatomy
  • 2021
The results demonstrated that EGb administration leads to a state of hypothyroidism, and considerations should be taken in cases where the EGb is used as a necessary treatment.
Ginkgo biloba, friend or foe of thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats: a histological study
The Ginkgo biloba tree is one of the most popular herbal products that are widely cultivated in various parts of the world and its products rank among the top five most used herbal supplements in the market, both as a drug product and as a dietary supplement.


Ginkgo biloba: no robust effect on cognitive abilities or mood in healthy young or older adults
For the older adult sample, longer‐term memory assessed by associational learning tasks showed improvement with ginkgo and there was no statistically significant difference on any other measure.
Ginkgo biloba: specificity of neuropsychological improvement—a selective review in search of differential effects
A pattern of pharmacological actions on cognitive processes emerges here from studies for mild cognitive impairment, depression, multiple sclerosis and healthy young and elderly subjects, and though this pattern is encouraging it also asks for a cautious interpretation to date.
An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults.
  • J. Mix, W. Crews
  • Psychology
    Journal of alternative and complementary medicine
  • 2000
Findings from standardized neuropsychologic assessment and a subjective, self-report questionnaire suggested that relatively short-term utilization of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 may prove efficacious in enhancing certain neurocognitive functions/processes of cognitively intact older adults.
Ginkgo biloba is not a smart drug: an updated systematic review of randomised clinical trials testing the nootropic effects of G. biloba extracts in healthy people
An update to an earlier systematic review of 2001, which critically evaluated the data from clinical trials to determine whether Ginkgo biloba enhances cognitive function in healthy subjects, finds that the data are still poor.
Differential cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba after acute and chronic treatment in healthy young volunteers
In line with the literature, after acute administration ginkgo improved performance in tests of attention and memory, but there were no effects after 6 weeks, suggesting that tolerance develops to the effects in young, healthy participants.
A double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings
Overall, the results from both objective, standardized, neuropsychological tests and a subjective, follow‐up self‐report questionnaire provided complementary evidence of the potential efficacy of Ginkgo biloba EGb 761® in enhancing certain neuropsychology/memory processes of cognitively intact older adults, 60 years of age and over.
Limited cognitive benefits in Stage +2 postmenopausal women after 6 weeks of treatment with Ginkgo biloba
The beneficial effects of ginkgo were limited to the test of mental flexibility and to those with poorer performance, while the placebo-controlled, double-blind study aimed to determine whether cognitive benefits, similar to those previously found after 1 week of treatment, would persist after 6 weeks of treatment.
The Neuropsychological Efficacy of Ginkgo Preparations in Healthy and Cognitively Intact Adults: A Comprehensive Review HerbalGram. 2005;67:43-62 American Botanical Council
There has been increased interest in the utilization of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L., Ginkgoaceae) leaf standardized extract for the treatment of dementia and cognitive impairment in recent years.