Is Epistaxis Evidence of End‐Organ Damage in Patients With Hypertension?

@article{Neto1999IsEE,
  title={Is Epistaxis Evidence of End‐Organ Damage in Patients With Hypertension?},
  author={Jos{\'e} Faibes Lubianca Neto and Fl{\'a}vio Danni Fuchs and S Facco and Miguel Gus and Leonardo Reichmann Fasolo and Rafael Mafessoni and Ana Luiza Gleissner},
  journal={The Laryngoscope},
  year={1999},
  volume={109}
}
Objectives/Hypothesis: To study the association between history of mild to severe epistaxis with different stages of hypertension and with other evidence of target organ damage in a sample of patients attending an outpatient hypertension clinic, controlling for potential confounding factors. Study Design: A survey of adult patients with hypertension. Methods: A consecutive sample of 323 adults with hypertension was studied. The main outcome measures were history of adult epistaxis, high blood… 
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TLDR
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Association of Hypertension With the Risk and Severity of Epistaxis.
TLDR
This study suggests that patients with hypertension had an increased risk of epistaxis requiring hospital visits and appeared to need more emergency department visits and require more posterior nasal packing procedures compared with patients without hypertension.
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TLDR
Hypertension per se does not appear to be a statistically significant causal factor and/or a factor of severity of serious spontaneous epistaxis, and no factors were independently associated with severity of epistaxis.
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TLDR
The presence of high arterial blood pressure during the actual episode of nasal bleeding cannot establish a causative relationship with epistaxis, but may lead to initial diagnosis of an already installed arterial hypertension.
Absence of Association between Hypertension and Epistaxis: a Population-based Study
TLDR
It is demonstrated that hypertension is not associated with history of epistaxis in the adulthood in free-living individuals, after controlling for gender, age, race, history of allergic rhinitis or nasal abnormalities, alcohol abuse, smoking and years of study.
Relationship between Epistaxis and Hypertension
TLDR
It is demonstrated that Epistaxis was unlikely associated with hypertension, and that epistaxis was not initiated by high BP, however, epist axis was more difficult to control in hypertensive patients.
The long-term fate of epistaxis patients with exposure to antithrombotic medication
TLDR
Evidence is provided that the intake of a vitamin K antagonist is an independent long-term risk factor for recurrent epistaxis episodes, and the intakes of ASA (Acetylsalicylic Acid) and VKA (vitamin K antagonists) are associated with increased need for a surgical intervention.
Active epistaxis at ED presentation is associated with arterial hypertension.
TLDR
It is found that active epistaxis was independently associated with history of hypertension (odds ratio 2.8; P =.004) and patients withactive epistaxis had higher blood pressure at presentation compared with controls.
Epistaxis as a marker of the unfavorable course of hypertension
TLDR
The cause of epistaxis is not high blood pressure, but those changes in the nasal mucosa vessels promoted by long-term arterial hypertension, as well as necrotic patches spreading to the deeper mucous coat layers.
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