Is El Niño Sporadic or Cyclic ?

@inproceedings{Philander2003IsEN,
  title={Is El Ni{\~n}o Sporadic or Cyclic ?},
  author={S. George Philander and Alexey V Fedorov},
  year={2003}
}
■ Abstract Is El Niño one phase of a continual, self-sustaining natural mode of the coupled ocean-atmosphere that has La Ni ̃ na as the complementary phase? Or is El Ni ̃ no a temporary departure from “normal” conditions “triggered” by a random disturbance such as a burst of westerly winds? A growing body of evidence—stability analyses, studies of the energetics, simulations that reproduce the statistics of sea surface temperature variations in the eastern equatorial Pacific—indicates that… CONTINUE READING
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