Is Child Labor Harmful? The Impact of Working Earlier in Life on Adult Earnings

  title={Is Child Labor Harmful? The Impact of Working Earlier in Life on Adult Earnings},
  author={Patrick Munro Emerson and Andr{\'e} Portela Souza},
  journal={Economic Development and Cultural Change},
  pages={345 - 385}
  • P. Emerson, A. Souza
  • Published 1 September 2007
  • Economics
  • Economic Development and Cultural Change
This paper explores the question: is working as a child harmful to an individual in terms of adult outcomes in earnings? Although this is an extremely important question, little is known about the effect of child labor on adult outcomes. Estimations of an instrumental variables earnings model on data from Brazil show that child labor has a large negative impact on adult earnings for male children even when controlling for schooling and that the negative impact of starting to work as a child… 
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