Is Child Labor Harmful? The Impact of Working Earlier in Life on Adult Earnings

@article{Emerson2011IsCL,
  title={Is Child Labor Harmful? The Impact of Working Earlier in Life on Adult Earnings},
  author={Patrick Munro Emerson and Andr{\'e} Portela Souza},
  journal={Economic Development and Cultural Change},
  year={2011},
  volume={59},
  pages={345 - 385}
}
  • P. Emerson, A. Souza
  • Published 1 September 2007
  • Economics
  • Economic Development and Cultural Change
This paper explores the question: is working as a child harmful to an individual in terms of adult outcomes in earnings? Although this is an extremely important question, little is known about the effect of child labor on adult outcomes. Estimations of an instrumental variables earnings model on data from Brazil show that child labor has a large negative impact on adult earnings for male children even when controlling for schooling and that the negative impact of starting to work as a child… 
Does Child Labor Lead to Vulnerable Employment in Adulthood? Evidence for Tanzania
This paper investigates the relationship between child labor and status in employment in adulthood. We aim to contribute to the literature that focuses on the obstacles to the formation early in life
New Evidence of the Causal Effect of Family Size on Child Quality in a Developing Country
This paper presents new evidence of the causal effect of family size on child quality in a developing-country context. We estimate the impact of family size on child labor and educational outcomes
The Causal Impacts of Child Labor Law in Brazil: Some Preliminary Findings
This paper investigates the causal impact of the change in Brazil’s child labor law of December 1998. The change increased the minimum legal age of entry into the labor force from 14 to 16 years. The
Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Child-Labor Ban
This is the first study to investigate the short- and long-term causal effects of a child-labor ban. The study explores the law that increased the minimum employment age from 14 to 16 in Brazil in
The Impact of Migration on Child Labor: Theory and Evidence from Brazil
This paper investigates the impact of internal migration on child labor outcomes in Brazil. We develop a theoretical model and evaluate it on children aged 10 to 14 using two decades of Census data.
LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF A CHILD LABOUR BAN ON ADULTS' OUTCOMES: EVIDENCE FROM BRAZIL
In December 1998 the Brazilian minimum legal age of entering the labour market increased from 14 to 16. This event gave rise to a natural experiment as it prevented children who turned age 14 in
Trends in child labor and the impact on health in adulthood in Brazil from 1998 to 2008.
TLDR
The results suggest that child labor has declined in Brazil, although the data still show patterns of early entry into the country's labor market.
Economic Growth and Child Labor in Low Income Economies
GLM|LIC Working Paper No. 11 | April 2016 Economic Growth and Child Labor in Low Income Economies 264 million children work in the world today. 64 percent are in activities that satisfy legal
Parental health shocks, child labor and educational outcomes: Evidence from Tanzania.
  • S. Alam
  • Economics, Psychology
    Journal of health economics
  • 2015
Can health-insurance help prevent child labor? An impact evaluation from Pakistan.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 82 REFERENCES
Effects of schooling on fertility labor supply and investments in children with evidence from Brazil.
We explore the mechanisms driving the negative relationship between parents' schooling and fertility. Brazilian data demonstrate strong negative effects of women's schooling on fertility over the
The Effect of Income on Child Development
  • D. Blau
  • Economics
    Review of Economics and Statistics
  • 1999
This study presents estimates of the effect of parental income on children's cognitive, social, and emotional development. The effect of current income is small, especially when income is treated as
Child labor versus educational attainment Some evidence from Latin America
TLDR
It was found that labor force participation is non-trivial among those below the legal working age or supposed to be in school and the fact that a child is working reduces his or her educational attainment by about 2 years of schooling relative to the control group of non-working children.
Is Child Labor Inefficient?
We build a model of child labor and study its implications for welfare. We assume that there is a trade‐off between child labor and the accumulation of human capital. Even if parents are altruistic
Does Parents' Money Matter?
Effects of Family Background on Earnings and Returns to Schooling: Evidence from Brazil
We investigate whether omitted family background variables are responsible for high returns to schooling estimated in Brazil. Returns to schooling fall by about one-third when parental schooling is
Microeconomic instability and children's human capital accumulation: the effects of idiosyncratic shocks to father's income on child labor, school drop-outs and repetition rates in Brazil
This paper evaluates the long-run effects of economic instability. In particular, we study the impact of idiosyncratic shocks to father’s income on children’s human capital accumulation variables
Expectations , Child Labor and Economic Development
This paper develops a model with overlapping generations where the household’s optimal fertility, child labor, and education decisions depend on the parent’s expectations or beliefs. Specifically, it
Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards
At least 120 million of the world's children aged 5 to 14 worked full-time in 1995, most of them under hazardous, unhygienic conditions, for more than 10 hours a day. This is an old problem worldwide
...
...