Is Active Commuting the Answer to Population Health?

@article{Shephard2008IsAC,
  title={Is Active Commuting the Answer to Population Health?},
  author={Roy J Shephard},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
  year={2008},
  volume={38},
  pages={751-758}
}
This brief review examines whether active commuting is an effective method of controlling the current obesity epidemic and enhancing the cardiovascular health of the population. Of the many potential methods of active commuting, walking and cycling are the usual choices. Children and adolescents prefer cycling, but for adults issues of safety, cycle storage and company dress codes make walking the preferred option, particularly in North American cities, where urban design and weather conditions… 
The Exercising Commuter: Is Commuting a Healthy Way to Be Active?
  • R. Shephard
  • Education
    Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
  • 2012
TLDR
After summarizing knowledge gaps through 2008, research on exercise commuting is reviewed for 2008–2011 and evidence has accumulated showing enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness and fewer cardiovascular risk factors among active commuters.
Associations between active commuting to school and objectively measured physical activity.
TLDR
To provide more accurate assessment of active commuting in children and adolescents future studies should incorporate multiple methodologies such as global position systems (GPS), accelerometers, cycle computers, and self-reported measurements.
Increased physical activity in abdominally obese women through support for changed commuting habits: a randomized clinical trial
TLDR
Abdominally obese women can increase PA long-term through moderate-intensity behavioural support aimed at changing commuting habits through cycling and walking to and from work.
Active commuting influences among adults.
An Examination of the Influences on Active Commuting among a Sample of Parents
Active commuting (AC; walking and biking to work) is associated with significant health benefits. AC rates remain low in the United States, particularly among parents; accordingly, it is important to
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 52 REFERENCES
Active Commuting to School
TLDR
There is very little evidence to support or refute active commuting to school as an important source of childrens’ physical activity; however, this is largely because it has been overlooked in the stampede to assess time in more vigorous activities.
Active travel to school and cardiovascular fitness in Danish children and adolescents.
TLDR
Children and adolescents who cycled to school were significantly more fit than those who walked or traveled by motorized transport and were nearly five times as likely to be in the top quartile of fitness.
Re: "Influence of exercise, walking, cycling, and overall nonexercise physical activity on mortality in Chinese women".
TLDR
Findings add new evidence that overall physical activity levels are an important determinant of longevity, and that health benefit can be obtained through an active lifestyle, exercise, or combinations of both.
MEAN STREETS 2000: PEDESTRIAN SAFETY, HEALTH AND FEDERAL TRANSPORTATION SPENDING
Walking in the United States is a dangerous business. Per mile traveled, pedestrians are 36 times more likely to die in a collision than drivers. In this report the Surface Transportation Policy
Increasing daily walking lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women.
TLDR
A 24-wk walking program meeting the ACSM-CDC physical activity recommendation is effective in lowering systolic BP in postmenopausal women with borderline to stage 1 hypertension.
Active commuting to school: Associations with environment and parental concerns.
TLDR
Both parent concerns and the built environment were associated with children's active commuting to school, and interventions that include both environmental change and education campaigns may be needed to increase active commute to school.
Randomised, controlled walking trials in postmenopausal women: the minimum dose to improve aerobic fitness?
TLDR
Walking at moderate intensity 45% to 55% ofVo2max, with a total weekly energy expenditure of 1000–1500 kcal, improves Vo2max and body composition of previously sedentary, non-obese, postmenopausal women and apparently approaches the minimum effective dose.
All-cause mortality associated with physical activity during leisure time, work, sports, and cycling to work.
TLDR
Leisure time physical activity was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in both men and women in all age groups, and benefit was found from moderate leisure timephysical activity, with further benefit from sports activity and bicycling as transportation.
Understanding environmental influences on walking; Review and research agenda.
...
...