Is “the Theory of Everything” Merely the Ultimate Ensemble Theory?

@article{Tegmark1997IsT,
  title={Is “the Theory of Everything” Merely the Ultimate Ensemble Theory?},
  author={Max Tegmark},
  journal={Annals of Physics},
  year={1997},
  volume={270},
  pages={1-51}
}
  • Max Tegmark
  • Published 3 April 1997
  • Physics
  • Annals of Physics
Abstract We discuss some physical consequences of what might be called “the ultimate ensemble theory,”, where not only worlds corresponding to say different sets of initial data or different physical constants are considered equally real, but also worlds ruled by altogether different equations. The only postulate in this theory is that all structures that exist mathematically exist also physically, by which we mean that in those complex enough to contain self-aware substructures (SASs), these… 

Figures from this paper

My God, It’s Full of Clones: Living in a Mathematical Universe
Imagine there’s only math—physics is nothing more than mathematics, we are self-aware mathematical substructures, and our physical universe is nothing more than a mathematical structure “seen from
The Relativity of Existence
Despite the success of modern physics in formulating mathematical theories that can predict the outcome of experiments, we have made remarkably little progress towards answering the most fundamental
Computability in the Theory of Theories
TLDR
It is suggested that the laws of physics are a universal behaviour to be found in the class of all possible mathematical systems, and could be modelled as a formal sum over a collection of mathematical universes M.
A physicist's view of the universe: a philosophical approach
Without a doubt many problems in physics arise as a consequence of our philosophical conception of the world. In this contribution however we endeavor to alleviate this scenario by putting forward a
String Theory - From Physics to Metaphysics
Currently, string theory represents the only advanced approach to a unification of all interactions, including gravity. In spite of the more than thirty years of its existence, the sequence of
Some remarks on the mathematical structure of the multiverse
The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum entanglement experiments is at best incomplete, since the intermediate state induced by collapse of the wave function apparently depends upon the inertial
The Non-unique Universe
The purpose of this paper is to elucidate, by means of concepts and theorems drawn from mathematical logic, the conditions under which the existence of a multiverse is a logical necessity in
The Informational Conception and Basic Physics
TLDR
The model is experimentally testable and yet now makes be more clear a number of basic problems in special relativity, quantum mechanics, and, rather probably, in [now – in Newtonian] gravity.
On Math, Matter and Mind
We discuss the nature of reality in the ontological context of Penrose’s math-matter-mind triangle. The triangle suggests the circularity of the widespread view that math arises from the mind, the
The best of possible worlds: A testable claim of choice
Abstract Leibniz said that the universe, if God-created, would exist at a unique, conjoint, physical maximum: Of all possible worlds, it would be richest in phenomena, but its richness would arise
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 78 REFERENCES
Does the universe in fact contain almost no information?
At first sight, an accurate description of the state of the universe appears to require a mind-bogglingly large and perhaps even infinite amount of information, even if we restrict our attention to a
Predictions from quantum cosmology.
  • Vilenkin
  • Physics
    Physical review letters
  • 1995
TLDR
The picture that has emerged from this line of development is that a small closed universe can spontaneously nucleate out of nothing, where by ‘nothing’ I mean a state with no classical space and time.
Field theories without fundamental gauge symmetries
  • H. Nielsen
  • Physics
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1983
By using the lack of dependence of the form of the kinetic energy for a nonrelativistic free particle as an example, it is argued that a physical law with a less extended range of application
"Relative State" Formulation of Quantum Mechanics
The task of quantizing general relativity raises serious questions about the meaning of the present formulation and interpretation of quantum mechanics when applied to so fundamental a structure as
Foundational problems in the special sciences
In two earlier volumes, entitled The Logico-Algebraic Approach to Quan tum Mechanics (hereafter LAA I, II), I have presented collections of research papers which trace out the historical development
Cognizable worlds: The anthropic principle and the fundamental constants of nature
Can the anthropic principle be used to understand the values of the fundamental constants of nature and, conversely, can the existence of life be said to arise from a remarkable feat of fine tuning
Anthropic bound on the cosmological constant.
  • Weinberg
  • Physics
    Physical review letters
  • 1987
TLDR
It is argued here that in universes that do not recollapse, the only bound on the cosmological constantlambda is that it should not be so large as to prevent the formation of gravitationally bound states, and it turns out that the bound is quite large.
The Anthropic Cosmological Principle
Is there any connection between the vastness of the universes of stars and galaxies and the existence of life on a small planet out in the suburbs of the Milky Way? This book shows that there is. In
...
...