Ionosphere of Venus: First Observations of the Dayside Ion Composition Near Dawn and Dusk

@article{Taylor1979IonosphereOV,
  title={Ionosphere of Venus: First Observations of the Dayside Ion Composition Near Dawn and Dusk},
  author={Harry A. Jr. Taylor and Henry C. Brinton and Siegfried J. Bauer and Richard E. Hartle and Thomas M. Donahue and Paul A. Cloutier and Frederick C. Michel and Robert Edward Daniell and B. H. Blackwell},
  journal={Science},
  year={1979},
  volume={203},
  pages={752 - 754}
}
The first in situ measurements of the composition of the ionosphere of Venus are provided by independent Bennett radio-frequency ion mass spectrometers on the Pioneer Venus bits and orbiter spacecraft, exploring the dawn and duskside regions, respectively. An extensive composition of ion species, rich in oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon chemistry is idenitified. The dominant topside ion is O+, with C+, N+, H+, and He+ as prominent secondary ions. In the lower ionosphere, the ionzization peak or F1… 

Ionosphere of Venus: First Observations of Day-Night Variations of the Ion Composition

TLDR
The Bennett radio-frequency ion mass spectrometer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter is returning the first direct composition evidence of the processes responsible for the formation and maintenance of the nightside ionosphere, revealing a surprising abundance of O+ from the dayside leading to the formation of O2+ through charge exchange with CO2.

Global observations of the composition and dynamics of the ionosphere of Venus - Implications for the solar wind interaction

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Comprehensive model calculations of the dayside ion density distributions were carried out and compared with results from the Pioneer Venus ion mass spectrometer. The coupled continuity and momentum

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Pioneer Venus in situ measurements made with the retarding potential analyzer reveal strong variations in the nightside ionospheric plasma density from location to location in some orbits and from

Dynamical response of the dayside ionosphere of Venus to the solar wind

Dayside ion composition measurements made by the orbiter ion mass spectrometer and the orbiter electron temperature probe on the Pioneer Venus orbiter are used to infer the dominant processes

The energetics of the ionosphere of Venus: A preliminary model based on Pioneer Venus observations

A model of the energy balance of the dayside ionosphere of Venus is presented. The coupled energy equations for electrons and ions are solved numerically and the calculated temperatures are compared

Empirical models of the electron temperature and density in the Venus ionosphere

Empirical models of the electron temperature and density of the Venus ionosphere have been derived from Pioneer Venus measurements acquired between December 10, 1978, and August 9, 1979. This time

Venus Ionosphere: Photochemical and Thermal Diffusion Control of Ion Composition

The major photochemical sources and sinks for ten of the ions measured by the ion mass spectrometer on the Pioneer Venus bus and orbiter spacecraft that are consistent with the neutral gas
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