Ionosphere of Venus: First Observations of Day-Night Variations of the Ion Composition

@article{Taylor1979IonosphereOV,
  title={Ionosphere of Venus: First Observations of Day-Night Variations of the Ion Composition},
  author={Harry A. Jr. Taylor and Henry C. Brinton and Siegfried J. Bauer and Richard E. Hartle and Paul A. Cloutier and Robert Edward Daniell and Thomas M. Donahue},
  journal={Science},
  year={1979},
  volume={205},
  pages={96 - 99}
}
The Bennett radio-frequency ion mass spectrometer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter is returning the first direct composition evidence of the processes responsible for the formation and maintenance of the nightside ionosphere. Early results from predusk through the nightside in the solar zenith angle range 63� (dusk) to 120� (dawn) reveal that, as on the dayside, the lower nightside ionosphere consists of F1and F2 layers dominated by O2+ and O+, respectively. Also like the dayside, the nightside… 
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The first in situ measurements of the details of the global composition and dynamics of the ionosphere of Venus have been obtained from the Bennett ion mass spectrometer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter
Initial Observations of the Nightside Ionosphere of Venus from Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radio Occultations
TLDR
It is shown that electron density distributions similar to those observed in both magnitude and structure can be produced by the precipitation on the nightside of Venus of electron fluxes of about 108 per square centimeter per second with energies less than 100 electron volts.
Morphology of O ++ ions and their maintenance in the nightside Venus ionosphere
In this paper, measurements made by the Pioneer Venus orbiter ion mass spectrometer are used to study the temporal and spatial distribution of O ++ ion concentrations in the Venus ionosphere. The
Ion density, temperature, and composition of the Venus nightside ionosphere during a period of moderate solar activity: Implications for maintaining the central nightside
Ion density, temperature, and the partial densities of the main constituents of the Venusian nightside ionosphere during moderate solar activity are presented. The data were measured by the retarding
Light ion flow in the nightside ionosphere of Venus
The flow characteristics of the light ions H+ and He+ have been studied in the midnight region of the ionosphere of Venus. Measurements of ion composition, electron and ion temperatures and magnetic
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References

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Ionosphere of Venus: First Observations of the Dayside Ion Composition Near Dawn and Dusk
The first in situ measurements of the composition of the ionosphere of Venus are provided by independent Bennett radio-frequency ion mass spectrometers on the Pioneer Venus bits and orbiter
Initial Observations of the Nightside Ionosphere of Venus from Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radio Occultations
TLDR
It is shown that electron density distributions similar to those observed in both magnitude and structure can be produced by the precipitation on the nightside of Venus of electron fluxes of about 108 per square centimeter per second with energies less than 100 electron volts.
Venus’ night side ionosphere: Its origin and maintenance
A substantial night side ionosphere has been observed on Venus by both Mariner 5 and Mariner 10. Major day side ionic species such as O2+ and other molecular ions have chemical lifetimes much shorter
Effects of electric fields and other processes upon the nighttime high-latitude F layer
We have studied the dynamics of the nighttime high-latitude F region with special emphasis on the formation of the electron density trough region which lies equatorward of the auroral oval. It is
Models for the nighttime Venus ionosphere
Possible models for the nighttime Venus ionosphere are developed and compared with observations obtained from Mariner 5. The preferred model assumes the presence of a light reactive ion, such as He+
Venus Upper Atmosphere Neutral Gas Composition: First Observations of the Diurnal Variations
Measurements of the composition, temperature, and diurnal variations of the major neutral constituents in the thermosphere of Venus are being made with a quadrupole mass spectrometer on the Pioneer
Cordier for significant as
    Planet. sistance in the analysis of the data and useful Space Sci
      We wish to acknowledge the contributions of
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