Radiation-induced inflammatory cascade and its reverberating crosstalks as potential cause of post-radiotherapy second malignancies
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in various stages of tumor progression. miR-494, which we had previously identified as a miRNA induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in the glioma cell line U-251, was observed to enhance invasion of U-251 cells by activating MMP-2. The miR-494-induced invasive potential was accompanied by, and dependent on, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) upregulation and the activation of its downstream signaling constituents, Akt and ERK. The upregulation of EGFR by miR-494 involved the suppression of lysosomal protein turnover. Among the putative target proteins tested, p190B RhoGAP (p190B) was downregulated by miR-494, and its reduced expression was responsible for the increase in EGFR expression. A reporter assay using a luciferase construct containing p190B 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) confirmed that p190B is a direct target of miR-494. Downregulation of p190B by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection closely mimicked the outcomes of miR-494 transfection, and showed increased EGFR expression, MMP-2 secretion, and invasion. Ectopic expression of p190B suppressed the miR-494-induced EGFR upregulation and invasion promotion, thereby suggesting that p190B depletion is critical for the invasion-promoting action of miR-494. Collectively, our results suggest a novel function for miR-494 and its potential application as a target to control invasiveness in cancer therapy.