Ion outflows and artificial ducts in the topside ionosphere at HAARP

Abstract

[1] New results of the DMSP satellite and HAARP digisonde observations during HF heating at the High‐Frequency Active Auroral Program (HAARP) facility are described. For the first time, the DMSP satellites detected significant ion outflows associated with 10–30% density enhancements in the topside ionosphere above the heated region near the magnetic zenith… (More)

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