BACKGROUND Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) or goiter is the cause of preventable brain damage, mental retardation, and stunted growth and development in children. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of IDD in Rajkot district, India by testing urinary iodine excretion levels and iodine salt intake of school children. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2940 school children of both sexes aged 6-12 years from 14 talukas subdivisions of the district. Thirty clusters were selected by using cluster sampling technique. Goiter was assessed in all the studied children along with biochemical analysis of iodine in 420 urine samples and iodine content in 840 edible salt samples in the studied area. RESULTS Goiter was reported from all talukas subdivisions of the studied area. Goiter prevalence ranged from 1% to 35%, and the overall prevalence was 8.8% (grade 1: 7.6%; grade 2: 1.2%), indicating a mild public health problem. In the study areas, 18.1% of the population showed a level of urinary iodine excretion <50 microg/L. The median level of urinary iodine in the studied areas was 110 microg/L (range 10-415 microg/L). The iodine level of more than 15 ppm was found in 81% of salt samples tested at the household level. CONCLUSION There is mild goiter prevalence in primary school children of Rajkot district, which is due to the inadequate iodine intake or content from salt at the household level.