Iodine deficiency and development of brain

  title={Iodine deficiency and development of brain},
  author={Vani Sethi and Umesh Kapil},
  journal={The Indian Journal of Pediatrics},
  • V. Sethi, U. Kapil
  • Published 1 April 2004
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Iodine is a trace element essential for the synthesis of triodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Inadequate intake of iodine leads to insufficient production of these hormones, which play a vital role in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially the brain. The neurological sequele of iodine deficiency are mediated by thyroid hormone deficiency, varying from minimal brain function to a syndrome of severe intellectual disability. All the basic processes of… 
Developmental Iodine Deficiency and Hypothyroidism Reduce Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase II in the Rat Entorhinal Cortex
Iodine deficiency and propylthiouracil treatment through gestation and lactation reduce phosphorylation of CaMKII in the EC of pups, which may contribute to understanding the mechanisms that underlie impairment of learning and memory induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism.
Thyroid hormones states and brain development interactions
Maternal marginal iodine deficiency affects the expression of relative proteins during brain development in rat offspring.
Free thyroxine levels in marginal iodine-deficient rats decreased after pregnancy in rats with marginal iodine deficiency, affecting the expression of related proteins in the brain of offspring.
Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development.
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The thyroid gland is controlled by a feedback system, the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, and produces thyroid hormone (TH), which plays a critical role in growth, development and cellular
Prevalence of Iodine Deficiency in Infants and Young Children in Western Sydney, Australia A Cross-Sectional Analysis
The finding that children older than 2 years had significantly lower urinary iodine values than those in the 0- to 2-year age group was found to point to the emergence of iodine deficiency as likely occurring from 2 years of age.
Brain Findings Associated with Iodine Deficiency Identified by Magnetic Resonance Methods: A Systematic Review
A review of studies that use MR methods to identify changes on brain volume or other global structural abnormalities and explain the mechanism of ID causing thyroid dysfunction and hence cognitive damage is provided.


Iodine deficiency as a cause of brain damage
  • F. Delange
  • Medicine, Biology
    Postgraduate medical journal
  • 2001
Iodine deficiency results in a global loss of 10–15 IQ points at a population level and constitutes the world's greatest single cause of preventable brain damage and mental retardation.
The role of thyroid hormone in fetal neurodevelopment.
It appears urgent to ensure the use of iodine supplements from before or very early in pregnancy, and to screen all women for hypothyroxinemia as early as possible, due to increasing evidence from epidemiological studies and patient reports that these hormones are already needed for orderly development during the first trimester.
Early effects of iodine deficiency on radial glial cells of the hippocampus of the rat fetus. A model of neurological cretinism.
The most severe brain damage associated with thyroid dysfunction during development is observed in neurological cretins from areas with marked iodine deficiency. The damage is irreversible by birth
Maternal hypothyroxinemia and brain development: I. A hypothetical control system governing fetal exposure to maternal thyroid hormones.
Though experimental work has primarily focused on the effects of thyroid hormones on the fetal brain, it is believed to be likely that fetal exposure to maternal hormones is under placental control, and that other components of this putative system are worthy of study.
[Thyroid hormones and the development of the nervous system].
Experimental research and clinical studies have partially clarified the correlation between the maturation of the nervous system and thyroid function during the early stages of development; both a deficit and excess of thyroid hormones may lead to permanent anatomo-functional damage to the central nervous system.
Thyroid hormone and intellectual development: a clinician's view.
  • J. Lazarus
  • Medicine, Biology
    Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • 1999
Recent data from Holland suggest that children born to mothers known to have circulating antithyroid peroxidase antibodies or from mothers with low normal free T4 concentrations measured at 12 weeks gestation have significant development impairment.
A review of experimental studies of iodine deficiency during fetal development.
It is suggested that iodine deficiency has an early effect on neuroblast multiplication and, if so, this could be important in the pathogenesis of the neurological form of endemic cretinism.
The potential repercussions of maternal, fetal, and neonatal hypothyroxinemia on the progeny.
  • D. Glinoer, F. Delange
  • Medicine, Biology
    Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • 2000
The present review summarizes available data and develops the present concepts concerning the complex feto-maternal thyroid relationships and the potential impacts of thyroid function abnormalities on the ideal development of the offspring.
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It is concluded from the present findings that normal circulating T3 levels may not be sufficient to maintain brain euthyroidism in rats fed a diet iodine deficient enough to result in very low circulating T4 levels.