Involvement of two groups in reversal of the bathochromic shift of pharaonis phoborhodopsin by chloride at low pH.

Abstract

Pharaonis phoborhodopsin (ppR; or pharaonis sensory rhodopsin II, psRII) is a photophobic receptor of the halobacterium Natronobacterium pharaonis. Its lambdamax is at 496 nm, but upon acidification in the absence of chloride, lambdamax shifted to 522 nm. This bathochromic shift is thought to be caused by the protonation of Asp75, which corresponds to Asp85 of bacteriorhodopsin (bR). The D75N mutant, in which Asp75 was replaced by Asn, had its lambdamax at approximately 520 nm, supporting this mechanism for the bathochromic shift. A titration of the shift yielded a pKa of 3.5 for Asp75. In the presence of chloride, the spectral shifts were different: with a decrease in pH, a bathochromic shift was first observed, followed by a hypsochromic shift on further acidification. This was interpreted as: the disappearance of a negative charge by the protonation of Asp75 was compensated by the binding of chloride, but it is worthy to note that the binding requires the protonation of another proton-associable group other than Asp75. This is supported by the observation that in the presence of chloride, upon acidification, the lambdamax of D75N even showed a blue shift, showing that the protonation of a proton-associable group (pKa = 1.2) leads to the chloride binding that gives rise to a blue shift.

Cite this paper

@article{Shimono2000InvolvementOT, title={Involvement of two groups in reversal of the bathochromic shift of pharaonis phoborhodopsin by chloride at low pH.}, author={Kazumi Shimono and Megumi Kitami and Masayuki Iwamoto and Naoki Kamo}, journal={Biophysical chemistry}, year={2000}, volume={87 2-3}, pages={225-30} }