Sensitization of TRPV1 by EP1 and IP reveals peripheral nociceptive mechanism of prostaglandins
We have reported that supraoptic nucleus (SON) neurones are excited by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) presumably via dual postsynaptic PG receptors, FP receptors and unidentified EP receptors, and that presynaptic EP receptors may also be involved in the excitation. In the present study, to clarify the receptor mechanism of the PGE2-mediated actions on SON neurones, we studied the pre- and postsynaptic effects of four newly developed EP agonists that are selective for each of the four EP receptors, EP1-4, on rat SON neurones using extracellular recording and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. The EP4 agonist ONO-AE1-329 mimicked the excitatory effects of PGE2, whereas the EP1 agonist ONO-DI-004, the EP2 agonist ONO-AE1-257 and the EP3 agonist ONO-AE-248 had little or no effect. The effects of ONO-AE1-329 were unaffected by the EP1/FP/TP antagonist, ONO-NT-012, which potently suppressed the excitation caused by the FP agonist fluprostenol and PGE2. ONO-AE1-329 caused marked excitation when responses to fluprostenol were desensitized by repeated applications of fluprostenol. Patch-clamp analysis in SON neurones showed that ONO-AE1-329 induced inward currents at a holding potential of -70 mV and the reversal potential of the currents was -35.1 +/- 2.3 mV. On the other hand, the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents recorded from SON slice preparations was suppressed by ONO-AE-248, but unaffected by the other three EP agonists. These results suggest that SON neurones possess postsynaptic EP4 receptors and that gamma-aminobutyric acid neurones innervating SON neurones possess presynaptic EP3 receptors in their terminals. Activation of the two EP receptors may be involved in the excitatory regulation of SON neurones by PGE2.