The regulator of G-protein signaling RGS16 promotes insulin secretion and β-cell proliferation in rodent and human islets
Somatostatin significantly suppressed cell growth of the mouse insulinoma-derived cell line MIN6. MIN6 cells exhibited high-affinity binding of somatostatin with 50% inhibitory concentration value of 0.9 nM. RNA blot analysis revealed that MIN6 cells expressed only SSTR3 among the five somatostatin receptors so far identified. Treatment of MIN6 cells with somatostatin significantly reduced the serum-induced c-fos expression levels. On the other hand, somatostatin (100 nM) treatment of MIN6 cells cultured in medium containing 10% serum transiently increased c-fos expression levels to 282 +/- 4.7% and then significantly decreased them to 27 +/- 7.6% of the levels before treatment. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity transiently increased to 656 +/- 91.2% and decreased thereafter to 39 +/- 13.3% of the activity before the addition of somatostatin (100 nM) into the medium. In addition, the stimulatory effect of somatostatin on c-fos expression and MAP kinase activity (early effect) was not altered by pertussis toxin (PTX), whereas the suppressive effect of somatostatin on c-fos expression and MAP kinase activity (late effect) was mitigated by PTX. These findings suggest that an inhibition of c-fos expression mediated by cross talk between PTX-sensitive G protein signaling and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling is one of the mechanisms by which somatostatin inhibits cell growth in MIN6 cells.