Involvement of Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Salt and Water Imbalance in Congestive Heart Failure

  title={Involvement of Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Salt and Water Imbalance in Congestive Heart Failure},
  author={Zaher S. Azzam and Safa Kinaneh and Fadel Bahouth and Reem Ismael-Badarneh and Emad E. Khoury and Zaid A. Abassi},
  booktitle={Front. Immunol.},
Congestive heart failure (CHF) has become a major medical problem in the western world with high morbidity and mortality rates. CHF adversely affects several systems, mainly the kidneys and the lungs. While the involvement of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic nervous system in the progression of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal dysfunction in experimental and clinical CHF is well established, the importance of pro-inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of this… CONTINUE READING
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