Invited commentary: the action in the interaction and exposure modification.

  title={Invited commentary: the action in the interaction and exposure modification.},
  author={D. Christiani},
  journal={American journal of epidemiology},
  volume={175 7},
  • D. Christiani
  • Published 2012
  • Medicine
  • American journal of epidemiology
The study of disease variability in populations is a goal of modern epidemiology. Because most common diseases arise out of a combination of factors and events (exposures, heritability, comorbidities, and chance), developing simple models of characterizing joint events is a daunting task. Dr. Weinberg argues successfully in this issue of the Journal (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175(7):602-605) that additive null models can capture pure forms of independent causal effects in studies of rare conditions… Expand
Advanced prostate cancer risk, selenium, and oxidative stress: the role of genetic variation and environment
The final author version and the galley proof are versions of the publication after peer review that features the final layout of the paper including the volume, issue and page numbers. Expand


Interaction and exposure modification: are we asking the right questions?
  • C. Weinberg
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • American journal of epidemiology
  • 2012
The concept of exposure modification is here proposed as useful, particularly in thinking about biologic interactions between exposures and genetic variants, as well as for predicting possible effects of interventions. Expand
Concepts of interaction.
It is proposed that synergy (or its negative counterpart, antagonism) between two or more causes of disease ought to be evaluated in reference to a specific yardstick, with effect defined as excess risk. Expand
Conceptual problems in the definition and interpretation of attributable fractions.
It appears that the excess fraction will be most relevant in situations that require only consideration of whether disease occurs by a particular time, and direct measures of effect on incidence time may be as relevant as or more relevant than any attributable fraction. Expand
Biological models and statistical interactions: an example from multistage carcinogenesis.
Under the multistage model of carcinogenesis, it is shown, by means of simple hypothetical examples, that even if carcinogenic factors act independently, some pairs may fit an additive statistical model, some a multiplicative statistical models, and some neither. Expand
Current smoking, occupation, N-acetyltransferase-2 and bladder cancer: a pooled analysis of genotype-based studies.
  • P. Vineis, D. Marinelli, +9 authors E. Taioli
  • Medicine
  • Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • 2001
It is confirmed that the NAT2 genotype is a risk factor for bladder cancer by interacting with smoking or occupational exposures and suggests that NAT2 is not a risk factors per se but modulates the effect of carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke or associated with occupational exposures. Expand
Effect modification and the limits of biological inference from epidemiologic data.
  • W. Thompson
  • Medicine
  • Journal of clinical epidemiology
  • 1991