Invisible Women: Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Family Firms in Nineteenth-Century France

  title={Invisible Women: Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Family Firms in Nineteenth-Century France},
  author={B. Zorina Khan},
  journal={The Journal of Economic History},
  pages={163 - 195}
  • B. Khan
  • Published 25 February 2016
  • Economics, Business, History
  • The Journal of Economic History
The French economy has been criticized for a lack of integration of women in business and for the prevalence of inefficient family firms. A sample drawn from patent and exhibition records is used to examine the role of women in enterprise and invention in France. Middle-class women were extensively engaged in entrepreneurship and innovation, and the empirical analysis indicates that their commercial efforts were significantly enhanced by association with family firms. Such formerly invisible… 
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