Inviability of parthenogenones is determined by pronuclei, not egg cytoplasm

@article{Mann1984InviabilityOP,
  title={Inviability of parthenogenones is determined by pronuclei, not egg cytoplasm},
  author={Jeffrey R. Mann and Robin Lovell-Badge},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1984},
  volume={310},
  pages={66-67}
}
Parthenogenetic mouse embryos pose an interesting problem in the study of early mammalian development. Haploid or diploid parthenogenones, resulting from spontaneous1 or experimental2–4 activation of unfertilized eggs, will undergo apparently normal preimplantation development but die in the early post-implantation stages5–8. However, in aggregation chimaeras with fertilized embryos, parthenogenetic embryos have the ability to differentiate into many tissue types, including gametes which can… 
Pronuclear transplantation reveals progressive imprinting of the genome during gametogenesis
TLDR
Noli are “imprinted” during gametogenesis so that male and female pronuclei are functionally different and this difference is required for normal development, which may be the earliest expression of the nuclear differentiation that occurs during normal cell differentiation and that progressively restricts the developmental capacity of nuclei.
Development of enucleated parthenogenones that received pronuclei or nuclei from fertilized mouse eggs.
TLDR
The results were contrary to those reported previously by Mann and Lovell-Badge (1984), who showed that parthenogenetic eggs receiving pronuclei from fertilized eggs developed well both in vitro and in vivo.
The histochemical identification of primordial germ cells in diploid parthenogenetic mouse embryos.
TLDR
The analysis of this material clearly demonstrated that parthenogenetic mouse embryos are in fact capable of producing primordial germ cells.
Influence of chromosomal determinants on development of androgenetic and parthenogenetic cells.
TLDR
The results suggest that maternal chromosomes in parthenogenetic cells permit their participation in the primitive ectoderm lineage but these cells are presumably eliminated by selective pressure or autonomous cell lethality from the primitive endoderm and trophectoderm lineages.
Nucleocytoplasmic interactions in the mouse embryo.
TLDR
The ability of nuclei from later developmental stages or from a different species to support development, volume relationships between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, and the nonequivalency of the maternal and paternal genomic contributions to development are examined.
Preimplantation development of rabbit embryos after transfer of embryonic nuclei into different cytoplasmic environment
TLDR
Comparison between the developmental abilities of oocyte‐ and zygote‐derived nuclear‐transfer embryos suggests that the cytoplasmic environment of recipient cell is more crucial for the development of reconstituted embryos than the stage of introduced nuclei (at least up to the 16‐cell stage).
Influence of parental chromosomes on spatial specificity in androgenetic ↔ parthenogenetic chimaeras in the mouse
TLDR
It is demonstrated here that in post-implantation chimaeric fetuses, the expression of parental information results in spatial specificity so that parthenogenetic cells are confined to the embryo but the trophoblast consists almost entirely of androgenetic cells.
The development potential of parthenogenetically derived cells in chimeric mouse embryos: implications for action of imprinted genes.
TLDR
Results indicate that normal trophoblast development requires gene expression from the paternally inherited genome before 6.5 days of embryogenesis, and suggests that the influence of imprinted genes is manifested at different times and in a variety of tissues during development.
Developmental potency of gametic and embryonic genomes revealed by nuclear transfer.
TLDR
The essential contribution of both the male and female genome to mammalian development was shown using the nuclear transfer method and genetic analysis, which further emphasize the need for identification and characterization of genes, which regulate early mammalian development.
Fate of haploid parthenogenetic cells in mouse chimeras during development.
TLDR
The developmental capability of haploid parthenogenetic cells was investigated by studies on haploids in equilibrium fertilized mouse chimeras and diploidization of the haploids occurred during development, suggesting that the haploid state is not sufficient for cell growth, even in Chimeras with fertilized embryos.
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References

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TLDR
It is reported here that early embryonic parthenogenetic cells are totipotent and can give rise to fully functional ova which, when fertilised by sperm, develop into normal individuals.
Development of reconstituted mouse eggs suggests imprinting of the genome during gametogenesis
TLDR
It is reported here that the eggs which receive a male pronucleus develop to term but those with two female pronuclei develop only poorly after implantation, suggesting that the cytoplasm of activated eggs is fully competent to support development toterm but not if the genome is entirely of maternal origin.
Normal postimplantation development of mouse parthenogenetic embryos to the forelimb bud stage
TLDR
The postimplantation development of diploid mouse parthenogenones is examined and it is reported that a high proportion progressed to somite embryos when blastocysts were transferred to pseudopregnant recipients.
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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TLDR
The early postimplantation death of parthenogenetic embryos does not seem to be related to an aberrant genotype but rather to undefined mechanisms associated with fertilization and normal morphogenic processes.
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TLDR
Six of the seven homozygous-diploid (isogeneic) females have proved to be fertile and have given birth to progeny corresponding only to the pronuclear genotype of the mother, depending on whether the female or male pronucleus had been retained in the egg.
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TLDR
Mouse eggs with different genetic constitutions prepared by micromanipulation of fertilized diploids and triploids developed at best to about the 25-somite stage as did the genetically similar diploid parthenogenones stimulated to develop in the complete absence of the male gamete.
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TLDR
Ovarian teratomas developed spontaneously in about half of the females of the inbred strain LT, and the incidence rose to about 50% in animals 90 days old, and originated from ovarian eggs that began to develop parthenogenetically.
X-chromosome inactivation in extra-embryonic membranes of diploid parthenogenetic mouse embryos demonstrated by differential staining
TLDR
This work has used a modification of Kanda's method, which renders the presumptive inactive X dark staining, to reveal an inactive X chromosome in both endoderm and mesoderm layers of separated yolk sacs from parthenogenones, indicating that even in tissues in which there is normally total non-random paternal X inactivation, a maternally derived X can be inactivated.
Completion of mouse embryogenesis requires both the maternal and paternal genomes
TLDR
It is concluded that the maternal and paternal contributions to the embryonic genome in mammals are not equivalent and that a diploid genome derived from only one of the two parental sexes is incapable of supporting complete embryogenesis.
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TLDR
This work has shown that the ability to culture and manipulate mammalian eggs and embryos in vitro provides the technological basis for experimentally altering the reproduction of mammals and can lead to the generation of new and useful genotypes.
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