Investigation of the threshold for allergic reactivity to chromium

  title={Investigation of the threshold for allergic reactivity to chromium},
  author={David A Basketter and Liran Horev and Dany Slodovnik and Sharon Merimes and Akiva Trattner and Arieh Ingber},
  journal={Contact Dermatitis},
Allergy to chromium is relatively common, often in association with exposure to cement or in leather manufacture. However, in certain locations, there appears to be a relatively large cohort of chromium‐sensitive individuals whose allergy cannot be explained by these common sources. In particular, this group include Israeli housewives with persistent hand eczema and concomitant patch test positivity to chromium. The causation of their allergy has been linked with relatively high levels of… 
Nickel, chromium and cobalt in consumer products: revisiting safe levels in the new millennium
It is shown clearly that elicitation of ACD is highly improbable, and the chance of the induction of sensitization is even lower, where consumer products meet this guideline fully, modern quantitative risk assessment shows.
Metal Allergy: Chromium
There are no inexpensive and simple analytical tools available that can detect released chromium with sufficient sensitivity to detect potential sources that should be avoided, so some environments and sources, especially alkaline ones, should be particularly avoided.
Chromium and leather: a review on the chemistry of relevance for allergic contact dermatitis to chromium
  • Y. Hedberg
  • Materials Science
    Journal of Leather Science and Engineering
  • 2020
Abstract As other causes decline in importance, chromium-tanned leather has become a more important source for chromium allergy, which affects around 1% of the general population. The aim of this
Sensitization Trends for Chromium and Cobalt and Causative Exposures
No immediate sign of improvement was found in patients with chromium allergy concerning severity of disease and dermatitis from leather exposures five years after adoption of regulation against hexavalent chromium in leather.
Chromium allergy and dermatitis: prevalence and main findings
It is concluded that much still remains to be discovered about the allergen, and that continued surveillance of exposure sources and prevalence rates is necessary.
Dermatological Toxicity of Hexavalent Chromium
This report reviews the etiology, prevalence, pathology, dose-response, and prognosis of chromium ACD and recommends reducing the hexavalent chromiumconcentrations in consumer products, such as detergents, to less than 5 ppm.
Risks of Allergic Contact Dermatitis Elicited by Nickel, Chromium, and Organic Sensitizers: Quantitative Models Based on Clinical Patch Test Data
  • K. Bogen, M. Garry
  • Biology
    Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
  • 2018
Risks of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from consumer products intended for extended (nonpiercing) dermal contact are regulated by E.U. Directive EN 1811 that limits released Ni to a weekly
Chromium tanning of leather is the most important tanning method and is used in over 80% of tanneries in the world. Several studies have indicated that leather products, when worn, can release
A Case of Chromium Contact Dermatitis due to Exposure from a Golf Glove.
A 27-year-old woman golfer presented with recurrent, pruritic, erythematous plaques that had been occurring on both hands for several years, and was treated with oral antihistamines combined with topical steroids and advised to wear chromium-free leather gloves.
Hexavalent chromium in leather is now regulated in European Union member states to limit chromium allergy and dermatitis
The nickel regulation must be considered successful as it shows that regulation can indeed alter the epidemiology of metal allergy as well as showing the potential benefits of a regulatory intervention on metal exposure.


Nickel, cobalt and chromium in consumer products: a role in allergic contact dermatitis?
The analytical data demonstrate that consumer products are a relatively minor source of contact with nickel, cobalt or chromium, and it is necessary to focus on decreasing the high exposure to these transition metals from other sources rather than on possible trace amounts found in consumer products.
Follow-up study of patients with contact dermatitis caused by chromates, nickel, and cobalt.
The patch test results from 1,000 patients tested with the ICDRG standard series are analyzed for positive reactions to potassium dichromate, nickel sulphate, and cobalt chloride and the relationship between these metals and hand and foot eczema is evaluated.
An arm immersion model of compromised skin
Skin damage consequent upon arm immersion in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) greatly enhanced reactivity to nickel on the forearm, with the dorsal aspect reacting most both in number of reactions at each concentration and in the minimal eliciting concentration.
Repeated exposures to cobalt or chromate on the hands of patients with hand eczema and contact allergy to that metal
Standardization of chemical methods of quantification of skin exposure to allergens, combined with experimental exposure studies in patients with specific contact allergy, will increase the possibility of providing evidence‐based medicine in the area of allergic contact dermatitis in the future.
Chromium allergy in consecutive patients in a country where ferrous sulfate has been added to cement since 1981
The aim of the study was to analyse a material of consecutive chromate‐sensitive patients in an urban tertiary referral centre with respect to primary cause of sensitization, in a geographical area where the risk of chromate exposure from cement had been reduced.
Prognosis of occupational chromate dermatitis
In view of the potential chronicity of chromate dermatitis and its associated social and occupational impairment, the addition of ferrous sulphate‐while mixing bagged cement at the work site is recommended, which targets the workers at greatest risk of becoming sensitized.
Influence of detergent washing powders on minimal eliciting patch test concentrations of nickel and chromium
EDTA significantly reduced the number and severity of patch test reactions to nickel sulphate but not those to potassium dichromate or trivalent chromium, and the minimum level of each metal required to provoke a patch test reaction was considerably greater than that found in fabric washing powder solutions.
Detergents and bleaches are sources of chromium contact dermatitis in Israel
Almost 90% of the detergents and bleaches examined contained chromium levels higher than 1 ppm, and it is concluded that these consumer products may be the cause of the high incidence of chromium sensitivity in Israel.
Addition of ferrous sulfate to cement and risk of chromium dermatitis among construction workers
Regardless of some potential confounders, the addition of ferrous sulfate to cement during the production process may have reduced the number of cases of allergic contact dermatitis among construction and concrete element prefabrication workers.
Eau de Javel and prevention of chromate allergy in France
The results indicate that the almost complete removal of chromate in most brands of French eaux de Javel is a good example of prevention in the field of contact dermato‐allergology.