OBJECTIVES To investigate an unusual cluster of Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3/VIII human infections that occurred in Creuse (France) during the summer 2008, and to perform retrospective and prospective analyses of yersiniosis cases to get a better view of the general trend. METHODS 33 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains isolated between 2008 and 2010 in Creuse were subjected to phenotypic and molecular typing. The database of the Yersinia National Reference Laboratory was used to compare the number of human cases over 23 years in Creuse and at the national level. RESULTS The 33 isolates had three distinct phenotypes and a high genetic diversity, ruling out a unique source of contamination. A long-term analysis of yersiniosis cases in Creuse showed a progressive increase over years, with a peak in 2008 and a subsequent decrease. This trend contrasted with the national cases that showed an opposite pattern. CONCLUSIONS Local environmental conditions were most likely responsible for a transient expansion of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains in Creuse.