In this study, we investigated the adaptive behavior during hindlimb locomotion of rats on a split-belt treadmill. We measured and analyzed the movement of intact rats walking by the hindlimbs on the splitbelt treadmill with two conditions: symmetric and asymmetric belt speed. In addition, we conducted the dynamic simulation of a neuromusculoskeletal model of rat's hindlimb walking on a split-belt treadmill. We investigated the immediate modulations of the duty factors and relative phase between the right and left limbs depending on the conditions of the treadmill. The results of the simulation were qualitatively similar to those of the measurement experiment. Furthermore, these results were qualitatively similar to the measurement data of the humans and cats in the previous studies. This suggests that our model have the essential aspects to produce the adaptive split-belt treadmill walking in dynamics viewpoints.