Introspecting about Reasons can Reduce Post-Choice Satisfaction

  title={Introspecting about Reasons can Reduce Post-Choice Satisfaction},
  author={Timothy D Wilson and Douglas J. Lisle and Jonathan W. Schooler and Sara D. Hodges and Kristen J. Klaaren and Suzanne J. LaFleur},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  pages={331 - 339}
This study tested the prediction that introspecting about the reasons for one's preferences would reduce satisfaction with a consumer choice. Subjects evaluated two types of posters and then chose one to take home. Those instructed to think about their reasons chose a different type of poster than control subjects and, when contacted 3 weeks later, were less satisfied with their choice. When people think about reasons, they appear to focus on attributes of the stimulus that are easy to… 
Effects of introspecting about reasons: inferring attitudes from accessible thoughts.
It was hypothesized that introspecting about reasons focuses people's attention on thoughts that are accessible in memory and increases the extent to which people view their accessible thoughts as applicable to their current attitudes.
Feeling certain: Gut choice, the true self, and attitude certainty.
Four studies support a process model by which focusing on feelings in choice causes people to see their true selves reflected in those choices, leading to enhanced attitude certainty and advocacy on behalf of that attitude while offering robustness checks and accounting for alternative explanations throughout.
More than Just an Opinion: The Effect of Verbal Self-Expression on Consumer Choice
In an ever-widening range of occasions, consumers have the opportunity to comment and express their opinions on brands and products. However, little is known about how voicing opinions about the
Differential impact of affective and cognitive attributes on preference under deliberation and distraction
The results of both experiments demonstrated that participants significantly preferred the affective alternative to the cognitive alternative after distraction, but not after deliberation, which has implications for understanding when and how unconscious thought may lead to better decisions.
Why Do I Love Thee?: Effects of Repeated Introspections about a Dating Relationship on Attitudes toward the Relationship
Students involved in dating relationships attended four weekly sessions, at which they either introspected about why they felt the way they did about their relationship or introspected about an
Addressing discrepancies between values and behavior:the motivating effect of reasons
Based on the values-as-truisms hypothesis (Maio & Olson, 1998), two experiments tested whether the salience of reasons for a value increases provalue behavior over and above the effect of making the
We propose that analytic thought, operationalized as analyzing reasons for a decision, can influence judgments by interfering with the use of familiarity and other subjective experiences as decision
Does the Future Look Bright? Processing Style Determines the Impact of Valence Weighting Biases and Self-Beliefs on Expectations
This work investigates how an integral part of future thinking that influences processing style—mental imagery—determines each bias’s influence, and suggests the two biases operate via distinct processes, holding implications for interventions to increase optimism.
[Choice based on plausible reasons].
This study tested the prediction that preferences induced by hidden factors would be justified and even accelerated by other factors that seem to be plausible determinants as causes but, in fact, do
Two studies examined the effects of asking college-aged participants to analyze their feelings regarding two options presented (student government candidates and college courses) that either shared


Thinking too much: introspection can reduce the quality of preferences and decisions.
College students who analyzed why they felt the way they did agreed less with the experts than students who did not, which caused people to make choices that corresponded less with expert opinion.
The disruptive effects of explaining attitudes: The moderating effect of knowledge about the attitude object
Abstract Previous studies have found that asking people to explain the reasons for their attitudes can change these attitudes and lower attitude-behavior consistency. We found that people's knowledge
Effects of introspection on attitude-behavior consistency: Analyzing reasons versus focusing on feelings
Abstract One type of thought, focusing on attitudes, has been found to increase attitude-behavior consistency, while another, analyzing reasons for feelings, has been found to reduce consistency. It
Introspection, Attitude Change, and Attitude-Behavior Consistency: the Disruptive Effects of Explaining Why we Feel the Way we Do
Publisher Summary The chapter presents evidence consistent with the observations of Roethke and Vargas Llosa that introspection can be disruptive. The focus is on one type of
Retrieval of attitude-relevant information from memory: Effects on susceptibility to persuasion and on intrinsic motivation.
A distinction was drawn between (a) classic views of attitudes as stable dispositions based on beliefs and prior experiences accessed from memory and (b) the self-perception analysis of attitudes as
Inference of One's Attitude from Behavior Recalled under Linguistically Manipulated Cognitive Sets.
Abstract To test Bem's (1972) hypothesis that individuals infer their attitudes from information about their behavior in a given context, subjects were asked their attitudes about a course after
Reasons for confidence.
People are often overconfident in evaluating the correctness of their knowledge. The present studies investigated the possibility that assessment of confidence is biased by attempts to justify one's
Postdecision changes in the desirability of alternatives.
  • J. Brehm
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of abnormal psychology
  • 1956
The present study was designed to test the following: Choosing between two alternatives creates dissonance and a consequent pressure to reduce it, which is reduced by making the chosen alternative more desirable and the unchosen alternative less desirable after the choice than they were before it.
Amount of information about the attitude object and attitude-behavior consistency.
The synthesis of two separate lines of inquiry--research on information integration and longitudinal studies of attitudes--prompted the hypothesis that the degree of consistency between attitudes and
Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes.
Evidence is reviewed which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Subjects are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus