Introduction of a three-dimensional anthropometry of the viscerocranium. Part I: measurement of craniofacial development and establishment of standard values and growth functions.

@article{Landes2002IntroductionOA,
  title={Introduction of a three-dimensional anthropometry of the viscerocranium. Part I: measurement of craniofacial development and establishment of standard values and growth functions.},
  author={Constantin Landes and Joannis Bitsakis and Thorsten Diehl and Klaus Bitter},
  journal={Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery},
  year={2002},
  volume={30 1},
  pages={18-24}
}
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE The analysis of lateral cephalograms is based on many vague landmarks that vary intra- and inter-individually. Exposure to radiation and high-quality equipment are essential, while identical object positioning is almost impossible. Anthropometry as presented in the literature is time consuming and cannot reproduce cranial three-dimensionality. Poor landmark definitions and resilience of the soft tissue foster systematic measurement errors. We used few easily detectable… CONTINUE READING

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