Introduction and Overview

  title={Introduction and Overview},
  author={Insup Lee and Joseph Y.-T. Leung and Sang Hyuk Son},
  booktitle={Handbook of Real-Time and Embedded Systems},
How is it that a committee of blockheads can somehow arrive at highly reasoned decisions, despite the weak judgment of the individual members? How can the shaky separate views of a panel of dolts be combined into a single opinion that is very likely to be correct? That this possibility of garnering wisdom from a council of fools can be harnessed and used to advantage may seem far-fetched and implausible, especially in real life. Nevertheless, this unlikely strategy turns out to form the basis… 
1 Citations

SME Development in Indonesia and China 1

1. Background From a worldwide perspective, it has been recognized that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role in economic development, as they have been the primary source of



Pitch of the Residue

The residue is defined as the joint perception of a number of Fourier components. Depending on circumstances outside the scope of this paper, it has a pronounced pitch. The consequences of this

Neurnl dynamics of speech and language coding : developmental programs , perceptual grouping , and competition for short-tenD memory

A computational theory of how an observer parses a speech stream into context-sensitive language representations is described. It is shown how temporal lists of events can be chunked into unitized

Contour Enhancement , Short Term Memory , and Constancies in Reverberating Neural Networks

A model of the nonlinear dynamics of reverberating on-center off-surround networks of nerve cells, or of cell populations, is analysed and applications to seizure and hallucinatory phenomena, to position codes for mo~or control, to pattern discrimination, to influences of novel events on storage of redundant relevant cues, and to the construction of a sensory-drive heterarchy are mentioned.

Pitch and stimulus fine structure.

  • F. Wightman
  • Physics
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 1973
This paper argues that in view of recent empirical evidence such a position is untenable, and rejects the simple fine‐structure theories of pitch.

Adaptive pattern classification and universal recoding: I. Parallel development and coding of neural feature detectors

It is shown how experience can retune feature detectors to respond to a prescribed convex set of spatial patterns, and a classification of adult feature detector properties in terms of a small number of functional principles is suggested.

Measurement of pitch in speech: an implementation of Goldstein's theory of pitch perception.

A harmonics sieve was introduced to determine whether components are rejected or accepted at a candidate pitch, and a simple criterion, based on the components accepted and rejected, led to the decision on which candidate pitch was to be finally selected.

Speech Perception and Production by a Self-Organizing Neural Network.

This total architecture sheds new light on key speech issues such as coarticulation, analysis-by-synthesis, motor theory, categorical perception, invariant speech perception, word superiority, and phonemic restoration.

Some new pitch paradoxes and their implications.

  • D. Deutsch
  • Physics
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1992
It is shown that the way the tritone paradox is perceived correlates with the speech characteristics of the listener, including his or her linguistic dialect.

Effective attenuation of signals in noise under focused attention.

One interpretation of these results is that bands centered on the unattended tones contribute to the decision process with some small but measurable weight and are not entirely ignored.